Applied Linguistics

Topics: Linguistics, Applied linguistics, Language Pages: 11 (2567 words) Published: March 18, 2011
Stylistics (literature)
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Stylistics is the study and interpretation of texts from a linguistic perspective. As a discipline it links literary criticism and linguistics, but has no autonomous domain of its own.[1][2] The preferred object of stylistic studies is literature, but not exclusively "high literature" but also other forms of written texts such as text from the domains of advertising, pop culture, politics or religion.[3] Stylistics also attempts to establish principles capable of explaining the particular choices made by individuals and social groups in their use of language, such as socialisation, the production and reception of meaning, critical discourse analysis and literary criticism. Other features of stylistics include the use of dialogue, including regional accents and people’s dialects, descriptive language, the use of grammar, such as the active voice or passive voice, the distribution of sentence lengths, the use of particular language registers, etc. In addition, stylistics is a distinctive term that may be used to determine the connections between the form and effects within a particular variety of language. Therefore, stylistics looks at what is ‘going on’ within the language; what the linguistic associations are that the style of language reveals. Contents * 1 Early twentieth century * 2 Late twentieth century * 3 Literary Stylistics * 3.1 Poetry * 3.2 Implicature * 3.3 Tense * 3.4 The point of poetry * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 References and related reading * 7 External links| [edit] Early twentieth century

The analysis of literary style goes back to Classical rhetoric, but modern stylistics has its roots in Russian Formalism,[4] and the interrelated Prague School, in the early twentieth century. In 1909 Charles Bally's Traité de stylistique française had proposed stylistics as a distinct academic discipline to complement Saussurean linguistics. For Bally, Saussure's linguistics by itself couldn't fully describe the language of personal expression.[5] Bally's programme fitted well with the aims of the Prague School.[6] Building on the ideas of the Russian Formalists, the Prague School developed the concept of foregrounding, whereby poetic language stands out from the background of non-literary language by means of deviation (from the norms of everyday language) or parallelism.[7] According to the Prague School, the background language isn't fixed, and the relationship between poetic and everyday language is always shifting.[8] [edit] Late twentieth century

Roman Jakobson had been an active member of the Russian Formalists and the Prague School, before emigrating to America in the 1940s. He brought together Russian Formalism and American New Criticism in his Closing Statement at a conference on stylistics at Indiana University in 1958.[9] Published as Linguistics and Poetics in 1960, Jakobson's lecture is often credited...

References: * Richard Bradford. 1997. Stylistics (London and New York: Routledge)
* Michael Burke
* David Crystal. 1998. Language Play (London: Penguin)
* Roger Fowler. 1996. Linguistic Criticism, 2nd edition (Oxford: Oxford University Press)
* MAK Halliday. 1978. Language as Social Semiotic: The Social Interpretation of Language and Meaning (London: Edward Arnold)
* Brian Lamont
* Geoffrey Leech and Michael H. Short. 1981. Style in Fiction: A Linguistic Introduction to English Fictional Prose (London: Longman)
* A McIntosh and P Simpson
* George Orwell. 1949. Nineteen Eighty-Four (London: Heinemann)
* Adrian Pilkington. 1991. ‘Poetic Effects’, Literary Pragmatics, ed. Roger Sell (London: Routledge)
* ed
* Michael Toolan. 1998. Language in Literature: An Introduction to Stylistics (London: Hodder Arnold)
* Jonathan Swift
* Katie Wales. 2001. A Dictionary of Stylistics, 2nd edition, (Harlow: Longman)
* ed
* PM Wetherill. 1974. Literary Text: An Examination of Critical Methods (Oxford: Basil Blackwell)
* HG Widdowson
* Joseph Williams. 2007. Style: Lessons in Clarity and Grace, 9th edition (New York: Pearson Longman)
[edit] External links
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