A.P. World History
Guided Reading 1
"The Origins of Agriculture to the First River-Valley Civilizations”
Culture - Socially transmitted patterns of action and expression
Foragers - Hunting and food gathering people
Animal domestication - The killing of animals for food
Pastorialism - Way of life dependent on large herds of grazing livestock
Matrilineal - Kinship with mother
Patrilineal - Kinship with father
Lineages - the holding of land by large kinship (blood relationship) units
Megaliths - very large stones constructed for ceremonial and religious purposes in Neolithic times
Civilizations - Any group of people sharing a set of cultural traits
Babylonian Creation Myth - climaxes in a vast battle between Marduk, the chief god of Babylon, and Tiamat
City-State - A small independent state consisting of an urban center and the surrounding agricultural territory
Lugal - “big man” (king)
Cuneiform - System of writing in wedge shaped symbols that represented words
Dynasty - the chief god of that town gained prominence throughout the land
Hammurabi’s Law Code - reflects social divisions that may have been valid for other places and times despite inevitable fluctuations
Scribes - an administrator or scholar charged by the temple or palace with reading and writing tasks
Anthropomorphic gods - Gods with human characteristics
Ziggurat - A massive pyramidal stepped tower made of mud bricks
Amulets - Small charm meant to protect the bearer from evil
Technology - tools and processes by which humans manipulate the physical world
Cataract - Large waterfall
Pharaoh - The central figure in the ancient Egyptian State
Ma’at - Egyptian term for the concept of divinely created and maintained order in the universe
Pyramid - A large, triangular stone monument, used in Egypt and Nubia as a burial place for the king
The Great Pyramid - The age of the great pyramids lasted about a century, though construction of pyramids on a smaller scale continued for two millennia
The Old Kingdom / Middle Kingdom / New Kingdom - Period of centralized political power and brilliant cultural achievement
Hieroglyphics - Writing system developed before the Early Dynastic period marked the administrative class. The earliest form of this system, featured picture symbols standing for words, syllables, or individual sounds.
Rosetta Stone - an inscription from the second century BCE that gave hieroglyphic and Greek versions of the same text.
Papyrus - A reed that grows along the banks of the Nile River in Egypt. Used as a writing material
Mummy - A body preserved by chemical processes
Mummification - Process of removing organs, filling body cavities, dehydrating the corpse with natron, and then wrapping the body with linen bandages and enclosing it in a wooden sarcophagus
Sumerians - People who dominated southern Mesopotamia through the end of the third millennium BCE Creators of many fundamental elements of Mesopotamian culture such as irrigation technology, cuneiform and religious conceptions taken over by their semitic successors
Semites - People who spoke languages spoken in parts of western Asia and northern Africa. They include the Hebrew, Aramaic, and Phoenician of the ancient world and the Arabic of today. Hammurabi - Amorite ruler of Babylon. He conquered many city states in Mesopotamia. Known for a code of laws (Hammurabi’s Law Code Menes - Ruler from the south, as a pivotal event
Lascaux - Evidence of human artistic creativity first came to light in 1940 near Lascaux in southwestern France with the discovery of a vast underground cavern.
Çatal Hüyük - One
religion shrine for every two houses. Objects of copper and lead, which occur naturally in fairly form in Çatal Hüyük date to about 6400 BCE Çatal Hüyük’s economy rested on agriculture.
Mesopotamia - means “land be-ween the rivers” in Greek. It...
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