Chapter 15 Study Guide: The Age of Religious Wars and European Expansion
1. What caused the Revolt in The Netherlands?
The Revolt of the Netherlands (1566-1587)
By 1560s, Calvinism spread and appealed to the middle classes because of its intellectual seriousness, moral gravity, and emphasis on any form of labor well done Calvinism took deep root among the merchants and financiers in the northern provinces and working-class people also converted partly to please their employers In 1559, Philip II appointed his half-sister Margaret as regent of the Netherlands who introduced the Inquisition to combat Calvinism and raised taxes In August 1566, Calvinists rampaged through the Low Countries aimed attacks at religious images and destroyed churches as well as burning irreplaceable libraries Philip II sent twenty thousand Spanish troops under the duke of Alva, opened his own tribunal (“Council of Blood”), Alva resolved the financial crisis by levying a 10 % sales tax on every transaction, and civil war raged between 1568 and 1578 In 1576, the seventeen provinces united under the leadership of Prince William of Orange (“the Silent”) and in 1578 Philip II sent his nephew Alexander Farnese The ten southern provinces the Spanish were able to control became Belgium and the seven northern provinces, led by Holland, formed the Union of Utrecht and in 1581, declared their independence from Spain (United Provinces of the Netherlands) Spain repeatedly invaded the United Provinces who repeatedly asked the Protestant queen of England, Elizabeth, for assistance and three developments forced her hand
2. Why were the woman tried as witches?
The Great European Witch-Hunt
Witches were thought to be individuals who could mysteriously injure other people or animals (old women who made travels on broomsticks to sabbats or assemblies) Since the pacts with the devil meant the renunciation of God, witchcraft was considered heresy and persecution reached its peak in the late 16th and 17th centuries in where tens of thousands of witches were executed Explanations for witch-hunts include explained random misfortunes, people believed that witches worshipped the devil, persecuting the nonconformists through charges of witchcraft, view on women by religion Broad spread of women hatred stemmed from belief that women were susceptible to the Devil’s evil, and the belief that women were sexually unquenchable
3. Who got involved in the 30 Years War?
The 30 Years War
The Germans, The Swedish, The Danish, The Bohemians, The Catholics, The Lutherans, and The Calvinists.
4. What were the results of The 30 Years war?
In October 1648, peace was achieved and treaties signed called the “Peace of Westphalia” making a turning point in European political, religious and social history
The independence of the United Provinces of the Netherlands, France gained on eastern frontiers, denied the Pope the right to intervene in German religious affairs, and divided up Germany among Lutheran, Catholic and Calvinist princes The Thirty Years’ War was a disaster for the German economy and society, probably the most destructive event in German history before the twentieth century 5. What were the results of the Spanish Armada?
The Spanish Armada
English fleet was composed of smaller, faster, more maneuverable ships, many which had greater firing power, storms and squalls, spoiled food and rank water, and inadequate Spanish ammunition, the English fleet defeated this “Spanish Armada” thus preventing Philip from forcing England back into the Catholic Church
6. Which crops exchanged in the Columbian Exchange became most beneficial?
The Colombian Exchange
Carbohydrate-rich American crops such as corn, potatoes, and cassava allowed Europeans and Africans to overcome chronic food shortages. 7. What were the flaws in Columbus’s plan to sail west?
Genoa was too far from Spain and the differences in language and customs was too great for the...
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