P.E. Introduction

Topics: Exercise, Stretching, Muscle Pages: 7 (1439 words) Published: June 21, 2013
Bicol University
Legazpi City

Physical Fitness

Physical Fitness is the capacity of the individual to accomplish his/her regular daily activities without undue fatigue and still has an ample amount of reserved energy to enjoy leisure and meet emergencies.


1.1 Flexibility- The ability of muscles and joints to go through the full range of motion. It involves four basic movements, namely:

a. Flexion- bending body segment
b. Extension- straightening a body segment.
c. Abduction- moving a limb away from the body.
d. Adduction- moving a limb towards the body.

Body flexibility is achieved through stretching specific segments of the body. To achieve good body flexibility, exercises should be performed daily. For very tight muscle-joint area, it is highly recommended that flexibility exercises be done at least twice a day.


1. Passive Assisted Stretching- involves relaxing a specific body part and just allowing the partner to move the limb of the stretcher to gain a new range of movement. 2. Static Stretching- involves slowly stretching a segment of the body to the furthest point and holding that position for a certain period of time. Usually performed without a partner, each stretch is easy and pain free. Once the stretcher has achieved its full range of movement and begins to feel a mild discomfort (muscle tension) in the body part being stretched, the position is held statically. 3. Ballistic Stretching- involves a sudden bouncing or jerking rhythmic movement of a specific part of the body. In ballistic stretching, the stretcher does not know how far the soft tissue structures can extended during the exercise; thus, the probability of tearing a muscle becomes apparent.

4. Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation- (PNF) involves the hold-relax approach to stretching. During the hold-relax, the partner attempts to move the limb at its lengthened range of motion and isometrically resists the partner’s attempt to move the deeper stretch. Then the stretcher relaxes the limb and the partner slowly moves the segment into a new range. PNF is generally used if range of motion is extremely limited and if active movement causes pain.

Fitness Benefits of Flexibility Exercise

1. Increase range of muscle joint motion;
2. Reduced muscle stiffness and increased body relaxation; 3. Improved blood circulation in specific body segment;
4. Reduced incidence of injury during a major sport event; and 5. Reduced risk of cardiovascular problems in exercise.

1.2 CARDIOVASCULAR ENDURANCE- The capacity of the heart blood vessels and lungs to adapt exertion for a prolonged duration.

Physiological Benefits of Cardiovascular Training

1. Decreased resting heart rate;
2. Decreased recovery time from a bout of exercise;
3. Increased blood volume and red blood cells to transport oxygen throughout the body; 4. Stronger heart muscle allowing it ejects more blood (stroke volume) with each heart beat. If this occurs the heart can rest longer between beats; 5. Increased number of capillaries for efficient exchange of oxygen, carbon dioxide and nutrients between blood and body cells; 6. Decrease rate of respiration;

7. Increased aerobic capacity which allows the body cells to utilize oxygen for better work efficiency; and 8. Prevents and/or reduces the risk of the developing coronary heart disease.

Muscular strength is the capacity of a group of muscle to exert one maximal effort against a resistance. When muscles are capable of exerting effort against a resistance for a prolonged period of time, muscular endurance is demonstrated.

Fitness Benefits of Flexibility Exercise

1. Increased muscle strength;
2. Increased muscle size or muscle hypertrophy
3. Reduced risk of...
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