Topics: Sociology, Social class, Middle class Pages: 14 (5026 words) Published: June 11, 2013
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SIN NO. 1301111423

1) Sociology is a science that uses scientific methods in its investigation. Outline the sociological research procedure in its sequence. Sociologists use the tools they have to design research that best fits the Circumstances, issues, and questions they are investigating. There is no exact Process that they follow in conducting their inquiries. There are, however, certain Steps that all sociological research involves in some form and at some stage in The research process.

Select and define a question. Sociologists can study anything in the social World that catches their interest. Obviously, there is no end to the topics they Might address. One of the first challenges sociologists face in conducting research is to refine their interest into a specific research question. These questions May arise from some long-standing personal interest. The questions may be assigned by someone the sociologist works for, such as the head of a government agency. They may develop out of the sociologists’ conversations with professional colleagues, clients, students, or others even in nonacademic social situations. Stanley Milgram, for example, developed research based on discussions with his family (Takooshian 2000).

Learn what any existing research says. Like other scientific research, sociological investigation builds on what others have already learned about the topic at hand. An early step in the research process is to read the existing literature on the topic. Finding the work that has already been done on the topic in- volves a number of approaches, including visiting libraries, searching databases, and contacting other researchers interested in the topic.

By doing this background work, sociologists can discover what theories and methods have been applied in previous research. They can also look for any problems that other researchers have encountered and any suggestions for further research offered in these studies. They may discover that their question has already been answered to their satisfaction. In that case, they might determine that there is no need to replicate something that has already been done. Or they might determine that there is a new way to examine the issue, so they refine their research question and address it a bit differently than originally envisioned. Design a research methodology that incorporates ethical considerations. Sociologists select research strategies to fit the question they are asking. They may use a variety of skills and incorporate both qualitative and quantitative methods. For example, Aaron Young (2000) combined three approaches to study the implications of a juvenile-curfew law that a city council was considering overturning. He used telephone surveys, self-administered questionnaires, and secondary analysis of data on citations issued for curfew violations to develop a more complex picture of the situation than would have been available using just one technique. He was able to reveal information about who supported the curfew and whether it was disproportionately impacting minority youth. He was even able to suggest ways to curb youth deviance beyond relying on curfews. Research strategies should also take into consideration such issues as how much the research will cost, how it will be funded, and who will work on the project. Some research can be conducted with no financial costs using resources readily available to the researcher (e.g., data from government publications or freely available public databases). Some research may be paid for by grants from government sources or other organizations.

The research design must also incorporate ethical considerations. It should be legal and meet the ethical standards set forth by professional organizations. Many universities and other institutions also require that all...
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