KENYA INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT DIPLOMA COURSE IN MANAGEMENT
MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS (MIS) NOTES
MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM This is a system that converts data from internal & external sources into information in an appropriate form to managers at all levels in all functions to enable them make timely and effective decisions, plans, directing and controlling the activities in which they are responsible for. Elements of Management Information System They Include: Information; System; Information Systems; and Management Information Systems. INFORMATION This refers to data that has been processed in a way that it is meaningful to the recipient. The quality of source of data affects the value of Information. Different managers (levels) take different types of information. Characteristics/Qualities & Attributes of good Information These include: Completeness (should have all necessary details); Accuracy; Clarity (ability to comprehend); Reliability; Timeliness; Volume; Channels of Communication; and Cost.
Roles of Information in Management The roles include the following:1) Improved knowledge; 2) Helps in reduction of uncertainty :Uncertainty exists when there is less than perfect knowledge but rarely is there a perfect knowledge. Relevant information, therefore, helps to reduce the unknowns and this is relevant particularly in planning and decision-making; 3) Acts as an aid to monitoring and control: By providing information about performance and the extend of deviations from planned levels of performance, management can better be able to control operations 4) Used as a means of communication. Management need to know about developments, plan, forecast and implement impending changes. 5) Acts as a memory supplement: This is by providing historical information about performance, transactions, results of past actions and decisions available, personal memories are supplemented.
6) Acts as an aid to simplification: Information reduces uncertainty and enhances understanding. Here, problems and situations are simplified and become more manageable. MANAGEMENT Q. Discuss three levels of Management decision-makings in an organization. Types of Decision/Problem Solving Structured; Unstructured; and Semi-structured. Structured Decision This is the one in which there is a defined number of elements and it is possible to go about solving the problem in a systematic way. A structured decision can also be described as programmable in that any ambiguous rules must be defined in advance. They can always be characterized as routine and repetitive i. e. little or no human judgment is required.
Unstructured Decision This is less easy to analyse as it appears to lack any obvious logic underlying procedures or rules for solving it. It is usually said to be non-programmable and cannot be preplanned the same way that a structured decision can be. It will usually occur less frequently and will be non-routine, that is, there is no prepared decision procedure for unstructured decision either because it does not occur frequently enough to warrant one.
Semi-structured Decision Falls somewhere between the two categories above and involve elements of human judgment and has characteristics of standard procedures and some programmed elements. Levels of Management Decision-making These include: Strategic, Planning and Control Levels; Tactical, Planning and Control Levels; and Operational, Planning and Control Levels. Strategic Planning and Control Levels This is done by the top levels of management in an organization. They are concerned with: Deciding on the objectives of the organization; They decide on the changes on these objectives; They decide on the resources required to obtain this objectives; and
They decide on the policy that governs the organization, the acquisition and use of these resources.
They achieve these by undertaking the following: They set the...
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