Literature Portfolio

Topics: Racism, Race and Ethnicity, White people Pages: 3 (846 words) Published: February 24, 2013
Literature Portfolio

Physical Education and Race/Ethnicity

Author and year of publication | Methods| Findings | Notes/Additional Comments| Grant Jarvie, 1991. | Hypotheses| According to Medof, 1986, there are 4 hypotheses that have been offered to explain racial stacking:1.’Role modelling’-based on the possibility that blacks emulate highly successful black athletes.2.’Differential attractiveness of positions’-based on the possibility that blacks either select or avoid positions that offer maximum opportunities.3. ‘Outcome control’-based on the possibility that blacks are excluded from positions having the greatest opportunity for influencing game outcomes.4.’Interaction and discrimination’-based on the possibility that blacks are assigned to positions by white coaches using racial stereotypes.| Racial stacking is placing an individual in a position or sport based on a racial stereotype. From my findings in this piece of literature, I can come to the assumption that racial stacking is prevalent in sport. In reference to the interaction and discrimination hypothesis, I can say, from personal experiences, that I’ve been placed in the position a position because of my race, an example being when I was place in the position of winger in rugby due to the fact that it was believed that I was fast but in fact there were faster white people on my team. From my findings I can see the limitation these hypotheses may have on blacks.| John Sugden, 1996.| Historical research| In the early 1900s white America sought to maintain the appearance of physical mastery by introducing a colour bar into most popular sports, boxing being one of them. At this time it was ‘anathema’ for white America to allow a black and white man in the ring, especially defeat for the white man was a possibility. Also some fighters have openly expressed their intolerance to fight black males; the famous Jack Dempsey assured that under no circumstances would he accept...

References: Kirk, D, Macdonald, D and O’Sullivan, M (2006). Handbook of Physical Education. p744.
Garland, J, and Rowe, M (2001). Racism and Anti-Racism in Football. p6.
Sugden, J (1996). Boxing and society- an international analysis. p34.
Jarvie, G (1991). Sport Racism and Ethnicity. p98
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