We look for patterns that exist in human development. Everyone is unique including identical twins. Each of us develops:
Partly like all individuals (talking, growth)
Partly like some individuals (where we live, gender)
Partly like no other individuals (you are you)
** Jim twins were reunited at 39 years old**
- Both environment and biology play strong roles in development.
Nature – The influence of heredity on development or biologically based predispositions. (infants cry, and we grow taller etc.) Nurture – forces in the environment that influence development (social environment siblings etc.) Learning requires human interaction especially with language by the time babies hit 6 months, they ignore sounds not in their language.
Disorders that have substantial genetic predisposition
Traits that have genetic predisposition
2. Verbal Ability
3. Vocational interest
4. Scholastic achievement
Extroversion/Introversion – Neuroticism – Openness – Conscientiousness – Agreeable.
When researchers report that trats are heritable they typically mean that genes account for 30-60% of the variation you sii in a trait. We can change based on own ideas (if you decide to not be shy you can change)
The environment modifies or enhances traits to which we are predisposed.
Stability vs Change
Is personality stable over time (part yes part no)
To what extent do early experiences set the life path of individuals How well can we predict later development from early development? Reciprocal influence/interactions – the idea that every individual influences and is influenced by the other individuals in their environment.
Research – a systematic way of studying changes.
Scientific investigation has three broad goals
1. Description: Average trends in human development across the life span (new born babies are typically 7lbs 20inches average/A dr in England measured 140ish non sick people the average temp was 98.6) 2. Explanation: Why do we develop as we do? (Why do some people turn out differently than other people?) 3. Optimization: How can we help people to develop in a positive direction?
Science is not defined by what it studies but how it conducts investigations. It does not matter what you are studying, if you do it in a systematic way.. it is considered science.
Cycle of Science:
Observation -> Theory -> Hypothesis -> Systematic observation -> Support or modify theory -> results either support or force us to modify theory. If we have to modify, we start process again.
Theory: A set of assumptions that attempt to describe, predict or explain a phenomenon. Hypothesis: assumptions that can be tested to determine the accuracy of a theory. Correlational Research: The goal is to describe the STRENGHT and DIRECTION of the relationship between two variables. (is there a relationship between the amount of conflict in a marriage and the marriage ending in divorce? (No it’s how you resolve the conflict)) Result: A correlation coefficient that ranges +1.00 to -1.00. Strength: the size of the correlation
ex) .20=weak .40=moderate .90=strong. (putting a negative sign in front of any of these numbers would NOT change the strength) Direction: the sign of the correlation.
Positive: as one variable increases, the other variable increases. (+.64 Class attendance and grades)
Negative: as one variable increases, the other variable decreases. (-.64 having a pet and blood pressure)
(the more alcohol you consume, the lower your grades)
In correlational research we can predict on variable from the other. BUT correlation does NOT equal causation. There may be a third variable which cause the correlation between two variables. (somewhere there was a driving force between the two main variables)
Research questions: Is there a relationship between X and Y? Ex: Is there a relationship between...
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