In Search of Political and Social Order
A. Confucius (551-479 B.C.E.) and His School
a. Educator and political authority
b. Sayings were compiled in the Analects by his disciples 2. Confucian Ideas a. Basically honesty and ethical in character
b. Thoroughly practical: how to restore political and social order c. Concentrated on formation of Junzi "superior individuals" d. Edited and assembled the Zhou classics for his disciples to study 3. Key Confucian Values
a. Ren: A sense of humanity, kindness, benevolence b. Li: A sense of propriety, courtesy, respect, deference to elders c. Xiao: Filial piety, familial obligation
d. Develop personal ethics and Junzi for bringing order to China 4. Mencius (372-289 B.C.E.), spokesman for the Confucian school a. Believed in the goodness of human nature (Ren) b. Supported government by generosity and humanity 5. Xunzi (298-238 B.C.E.) had a less positive view of human nature a. Believed that humans selfishly pursue own interests b. Preferred harsh social discipline to bring order to society c. Supported moral education and good public behavior B Daoism Featured Prominent Critics of Confucian Activism 1. Preferred rational reflection and self-examination, a life in harmony with nature 2. Laozi, founder of Daoism, allegedly wrote the Daodejing a. Classic of the Way and of Virtue
3. Zhuangzi (compendium of Daoist philosophy)
4. The Dao--the way of nature, the way of the cosmos
a. Elusive concept: an eternal principle governing all the workings of the world b. Dao is passive and yielding, does nothing
The Silk Road
Silk Road - First came into use around 100 B.C.E.
In 128 B.C.E., Chinese general Zhang Jian crossed the western China area under the expeditionbehalf of Emperor Wu of Han. He eventually went on 18 expeditions.
He brought a whole new garden to China.
New plants include: alfafa and wine grapes, pistachios, walnuts, pomegranates, sesame,coriander, spinach, etc.
Other new materials brought to China include jasmine oil, oak galls, copper oxides, zinc,and precious stones.
Soon afterwards, the Parthians (247 B.C.E.) had advantageous trade with the Chinese.
The Greeks could buy Chinese silk in 100 B.C.E. from the Parthian traders.
Quickly, spices, fruits, silk, and various other precious materials were traded along the SilkRoad.
The Sasanid Empire (224-660 C.E.)
The successors of the Parthians was the Sasanid Empire. In 224, Sasan defeated the Parthiansand took control of Iran. This new empire further continued the rivalry between Rome and theParthian area.
During this time, the Silk Road, as it did to China, brought many new plants to Mesopotamia.
These new plants included cotton, sugar cane, rice, citrus trees, eggplants, etc.
These plants will be extremely important in the near future.
Like the previous Persian Empire, the Sasanid Empire declared their faith to be Zoroastrianism.However, with this faith, plenty of other religions still flourished in this area. This was among theearly instances in which religion was used as a political tool.
The Silk Road at this time was used as a route for the spreading of religion from various sources.
The Cold War World: (End of WWII‐1990)
World War II. The hostilities leading to the outbreak of war in 1939 started earlier in the decade. Japan and Germany began military actions that were met with passive responses from other powerful states exacerbated nationalistic and ideological tensions that included Western fears of the Soviet Union. New Authoritarian Regimes. The depression contributed to the rise of ultra nationalist groups. In Japan one such group killed the prime minister in 1932 and caused the inauguration of a military regime. The military already had moved into Manchuria in 1931 to counter Chinese efforts to reunify their nation. The Japanese proclaimed...
Please join StudyMode to read the full document