Ottomans: Factors of Decline * Competition between elite * Weak rulers * Increasingly powerful Janissary corps * Increased competition from European merchants * Military challenges from the West * Ottomans vs. Russia (result: loss of Serbia, Greece, and most of Balkans)
* Played European rivals against each other * Selim III: reformed bureaucracy, new army and navy. Killed by janissaries in 1807 * Mahmud II: slaughtered Janissaries, families and religious allies, reforms based on Western influence (angered conservative religious leaders) * Tanzimat Reforms (1939-1876): series of Western influenced reforms in education, government, newspapers, and constitution. Introduction of railroad and telegraph systems (effect: communication increased, minority groups increased power) * Consequences: artisans negatively effected (thank you, Britain), women ‘s status remained stagnant
Backlash to Reforms * Conflict between old and new orders * Abdul Hamid: attempted to return to despotic governing.. nullified constitution, removed Westerners in power, continued SOME Western policies * Coup 1908: Ottoman Society for Union and Progress (Young Turks) fought for return to 1976 constitution, Sultan remained as figurehead. * War in North Africa: Ottomans lost Libya * Young Turks vs. Arabs * World War I: Turkey sided with Germany….
Arab Heartlands * Fertile Crescent, Egypt, North Africa\Identified with Ottoman rulers as Muslims, disliked Ottoman rule * Fear of Western rule
Muhammad Ali, Westernizing Europe * Napoleon invades Egypt (1798): example of Western military power, eventually defeated by the British * Western reforms introduced (military, agriculture) little accomplished in the long-term * Khedives: Muhammad’s descendants, ruled Egypt until 1952
Issues and European Help * Cotton: solely dependent on export * Misuse of