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Key Terms of Early Human Socities

By Penningtontaylor Jan 08, 2013 772 Words
Zhou: had alliance system with regional princes and nobles (feudalism) - eventually princes disregarded the central government. Extended territory of China to Middle Kingdom (between Huang He and Yangtze). Mandate of Heaven- justification for Chinese Imperial rule. Banned human sacrifice and standard language was Mandarin. Shi Huangdi: First emperor during the Qin dynasty. He ended the feudal system. Expanded the territory of China south. Started to build the Great Wall to guard against invasions. Relied heavily on conscripted labor. Executed people that criticized him. Also burned books that weren't about agriculture because he didnt want people to be educated, he just wanted them to work in the fields. Qin: 221-207 BCE Qin SHi Huangdi was the first emperor. ^ Had a national census (people count) Uniform written language, standardized coins, weights, measures. Irrigation Projects. Built road systems for communication. manufactured silk. Han: 202 BCE -220 CE. Maintained the centralization of power established by the Qin, but reduces the repression. Expanded territory into Korea and Indochina. Period of Peace. SUPPORTED CONFUCIANISM. (Built shrines, stressed Confucian Values) They were invaded by the Xiongnu. Attempted to appease the Xiongnu by offering them tribute and arranged marriages. Crossbow created and defeated the Xiongnu and stretched Chinese territory to Central Asia. Emperor Wudi. Xiongnu: Invaded the Han Dynasty. They were a nomadic group from Central Asia that often invaded Chinese villages and trade centers. They were defeated by the Han after trying to invade. Confucius: Kong Fuzi (Kong Philosopher)

Confucianism: Started by Confucius. in China, Korean Peninsula, and Indochina. had Analects, Doctrine of the Mean, Mencius, and Great Learning (all holy/ sacred texts. Respect for social superiors (fathers/ husbands) (Xioa- filial piety- honoring of the family bond between a child and his/her parents) Ren (humaness) relationship between others; within family or between ruler and ministers. Li (ritual) proper behavior. You should respect your elders. Your ancestors should be worshiped as they help provide you guidance. Education is strongly emphasized. Being polite is very important. Yin and Yang represent opposite forces that keep balance and harmony in nature. Women were subordinate to men but educated. Daoism: Founder- Laozi. Started in China (No exact location) Holy texts- Dao Dejing (The way). Dictates that the universe and all within are permeated by natural order that must be felt and experienced to be understood. Temporal (worldly) matters are of little concern; seeking knowledge of the Dao (the way) through nature poetry and experience is all that matters. Great emphasis on the individual and the balance with nature (Ying and Yang). A true Daoist embraces the nature of things and does not waster effort effecting their whim of life but rather surrenders themselves to experience. Ancestor Worship: VERY important in Confucianism.

Silk Road: The trade system (Road) that connected China to the west to Rome and Middle East. Started in China (Chang'an) and primarily went west toward the Middle East. Split off and went south the India, southern tip of the arabian peninsula and west to turkey. Primary products- silk and spices, horses and manufactured goods. Mahabharata: Sanskrit- Part of the Vedas. First part.

Ramayana: ^ second part of Vedas.
Upanishads: ^ third part of vedas.
Varna: Indian Casta system
Dharma: law orders of the universe (Buddism)
Mauryan: Changragupta Maurya unified the subcontinent by maintaining large armies and developing a bureaucracy. They had an Autocratic government that was based on rulers personal military power. Ashoka- grandson- lavish lifestyle. He was influenced by natural spiritualism and also converted to Buddism. Buddhism spread throughout the empire and honored Hinduism, Mauryan Dynasty (Ashoka) improved rowas networks to encourage the growth of commerce. Decline- small regional kingdom began to appear. Kushans, from the northwest invaded. They converted to Buddhism and lef to decline of religion's popularity. Gupta: lasted longer than Mauryan dynasty. No powerful indivdual rulers, but greater impact. Negotiate with local princes. This, expanded influence without fighting. Two generations of political stability came out of it. They favored Hinduism there. They also maintained power by negotiation and being appointed by 'gods'. they allowed local rulers to have authority. No single language was imposed, but they promoted sanskrit. Started the Golden age- spread laws, supported university, arts and literature. Vishnu: was one of the Hindu Gods

Shiva: hindu fertility god
Buddha: Founder of Buddhism
Buddhism: Founder^. There was no set caste system, priests or ritual, They believed in reincarnation. They didn't believe that economic goods brought you great power. Believed in Nirvana which is a state of happiness after you die. Didn't believe in gods. Monks spread Buddhism and Mauryan Ashoka accepted it. Indian Ocean Basin: sea trade that connected to the Middle East and east asia.

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