Chapter 24: Land Empires in the Age of Imperialism:
During the eighteenth century the Ottoman Empire lost much of its power to provincial governors, escalating many new encounters of reform. To justify or deny such climatic choices of reform called for a time of war. Following times of war were times of recovery; however, some empires could not withhold such responsibilities and fell through the cracks of their own broken establishment. The Ottoman Empire:
In 1798, Napoleon invaded Egypt and defeated the Mamluk forces he encountered there. Fifteen months later, after a series of military defeats, Napoleon returned to France, seized power, and made himself emperor. Muhammad Ali used many French practices in effort to build up the new Egyptian state. He established schools to train modern military officers and built factories to supply his new army. Ottoman Reform and the European Model:
Tension between the Sultanate and the Janissaries sparked a Janissary revolt in Serbia in 1805. Serbian peasants helped to defeat the Janissary uprising and went on to make Serbia independent of the Ottoman Empire. Sultan Mahmud II believed that the loss of Greece indicated a profound weakness in Ottoman military and financial organization. Mahmud used popular outrage over the loss of Greece to justify a series of reforms that included the creation of a new army corps, elimination of the Janissaries, and reduction of the political power of the religious elite. Mahmud’s secularizing reform program was further articulated in the Tanzimat (reorganization) reforms initiated by his successor Abdul Mejid in 1839. The Crimean War and its Aftermath:
The percussion caps and breech-loading rifles that were used in the Crimean War were the beginning of a series of subsequent changes in military technology that included the invention of machine guns, the use of railways to transfer weapons and men, and trench warfare. The decline of Ottoman power and wealth inspired a group of...
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