APUSH Chapter 1-5 Notes
Chapter One starts out with the shaping of North America. The section explains that because of the Great Ice Age and the Canadian Shield that now we have present-day America. Early evidence shows that people had already began traveling to the Americas in crude boats or going along the Bering Isthmus. Before the Europeans arrived, it is estimated that 54 million people already inhabited these areas of interest. Although the Europeans did not see how many people were actually living in the area because many of these groups lived in small communities and moved around often in search of food. Agriculture along with present-day Southwest America was powerfully molded by Pueblo culture. This was important because the Pueblo peoples constructed important irrigation systems to water their many fields. Two of the biggest, most impacting things the Europeans brought with them were their Old World crops and animals, and their dirt and germs. The Indian tribes quickly adapted to the new crops and animals, but unfortunately it was a different story with the germs the Europeans brought with them. The germs that people of the Old World had grown resistant to were now introduced to over 1 million people. Within 50 years of their arrival, the smallpox disease killed about 800,000 Taino natives in Hispaniola. Not only did it affect this group, but also within centuries of Columbus’s arrival almost 90 percent of the Indian population perished from Old World disease. A few years later in the 1500s, Spain became dominant in their colonizing and exploring power. The Spanish Conquistadores made their final landfall in the Aztec city of Tenochtitlan. Only a few short years later did the smallpox epidemic reach the Valley of Mexico and kill 18 million Aztecs. The Conquistadores took control of the city and brought along a few positives. They brought their crops, animals, laws, and even religion, which were proved to be adaptable to the people of Mexico. Overall Chapter One’s major points focused on telling the story of the formation of the Americas, their discovery, and the process of the Europeans inhabiting them. Chapter 2
Even in the 1600s, North America was still very unexplored. It also took England longer to begin to compete with the Spanish since King Henry VIII had broken the bond with the Roman Catholic Church in the 1530s, which launched the Protestant Reformation. Under Queen Elizabeth’s successful rule, the English defeated the Spanish Armada and helped reinforce England’s naval dominance in the North Atlantic. This victory was a major event because it brought down Spain’s fighting spirit and led to England becoming the master of the world oceans. Another positive from defeating the Spanish was the golden age of literature in England blooming. Later in 1607, the English finally landed in Chesapeake where there was a power struggle between the English and the local Indians, the Powhatans. War broke out in 1610 led by Lord De La Warr who introduced “Irish tactics” against the Indians. Four years later the war ended with a signed peace treaty and the marriage between Pocahontas and John Rolfe. Yet again, in 1644 the second war broke out and the Powhatans were defeated once and for all. Later in 1685, the English considered the Powhantans to be extinct. This extinction foreshadowed the many other indigenous peoples fates. In Chapter Two, two main colonies were highlighted: Virginia and Maryland. Virginia was the child of tobacco and in 1619 they formed their own self-government, which was called the House of Burgesses. Although later King James 1 made Virginia a colony of England under his direct control because he distrusted the House of Burgesses. The next colony highlighted was Maryland because of its high toleration. Maryland became a safe haven to Catholics trying to escape the angry Protestant English government. In 1649, Maryland even passed an Act of Toleration for Christians. By the...
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