ENGLANDS IMPERIAL STIRRINGS
* England took little interest in establishing its own overseas colonies. * Religious conflict, moreover, disrupted England in midcentury, after King Henry VIII broke with the Roman Catholic Church in the 1530s, launching the English Protestant Reformation. * Protestant became dominant in England and rivalry with catholic Spain intensified * The catholic Irish sought help from catholic Spain to throw off the yoke of the new protestant English queen. * Elizabeth’s troops crushed the Irish uprising with terrible ferocity (1570 and 1580)
ELIZABETH ENERGIZES ENGLAND
* English buccaneers now swarmed out upon the shipping lanes. * The bleak coast of Newfoundland was the scene of the first English attempt at colonization. * Raleigh organized an expedition that first landed in the 1585 on North Carolina’s Roanoke Island, off the coast of Virginia named virgin queen to honor Elizabeth. * These pathetic English failures at colonization contrasted embarrassingly with the glories of the Spanish empire, whose profits were fabulously enriching Spain. * Showdown came in 1588 when the lumbering Spanish flotilla 130 strong, hove into the English Channel. * Storm arose “protestant wind” scattering the Spanish fleet. * England’s victory over the Spanish armada also marked a red-letter day in American history. It dampened Spain's fighting spirit and helps ensure England’s naval dominance in North America.
ENGLAND ON THE EVE OF EMPIRE
* England’s scepter’d isle throbbed with social economic change as the 17th century opened. * Population was about 3 million in 1550 and 4 million in 1600. * When economic depression hit the woolen trade in the late 1500, thousands of farmers took to the roads. * Peace with chastened Spain provided the opportunity for English colonization.
ENGLAND PLANTS THE JAMESTOWN SEEDLING
* A join-stock