Ap Euro notes

Topics: Ottoman Empire, Louis XIV of France, House of Habsburg Pages: 47 (7047 words) Published: November 25, 2013
Chapter 13: European State Consolidation in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries Chapter Overview
•From the early seventeenth century through World War II, no region so dominated the world politically, militarily, and economically as Europe.
•During this period, power shifted from the Mediterranean area—where Spain and Portugal had taken a lead in the conquest and early exploitation of the New World—to the states of northwest and later north-central Europe.

•Five major states, Great Britain, France, Austria, Prussia, and Russia were the leading powers in Europe.
•In west Europe, Britain and France emerged as dominant powers. (spain and the united Nether lands became political and had little military power. The Netherlands: Golden Age to Decline
*Section Overview
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The United Provinces of the Netherland gained independence from Spain in 1572 but continued to battle other European powers like England and France throughout the second half of the 17th century.

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Prince William III of Orange (1650-1702), the chief executive, or stadtholder, of Holland which was the most important of the provinces, led the Dutch to victory against France.

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The Netherlands maintained a republican system of government in which each of the provinces maintained a certain degree of autonomy. The central government in the Netherlands was known as the States General and met in the Hague but the Dutch distrusted monarchy and honored the freedoms of the provinces.

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When there were major military challenges the people would still allow House of Orange, William III to assume dominant leadership

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When William died in 1703 and the wars with France ended in 1714 the Dutch reverted to the republic structure

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Although the official religion of the Netherlands was the Reformed Calvinist Church, the Dutch tolerated people of all faiths including Roman Catholics and Jews.

*Urban Prosperity
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The prosperous Dutch economy stemmed from high urban consolidation, transformed agriculture, extensive trade and finance, and an overseas commercial empire.

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More people lived in cities than in any other area of europe

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The Dutch drained and reclaimed land from the sea which became very fertile and highly profitable soil for farming.


The Dutch imported grain which allowed farmers to produce dairy products and beef and cultivate products like tulip bulbs.

Monday, November 25, 2013 11:00:04 AM Eastern Standard Time

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Dutch fishermen caught and sold herring and dominated the dried fish market in Europe.

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Dutch manufacturers supplied textiles to the people throughout Europe

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Overseas trade and shipbuilding were the foundations of the Dutch economy. 

The Dutch East India Company (chartered in 1602) sailed to areas of East Asia—like Java, Moluccas, and Sri Lanka—to participate in the profitable trade of spices.



Although the Dutch initially only had commercial interests in this region, they came to dominate the production of the spices themselves which led them to colonize many of the islands that now form Indonesia of which they maintained possession until after World War II.

*Economic Decline
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When William III died in 1702, the provinces resisted the rise of a strong stadtholder and consequently unified political leadership vanished.

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The Dutch lost naval supremacy which was passed to Great Britain.

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Countries between which the Dutch once carried goods began trading directly with each other as other states developed sophisticated shipbuilding technology.

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The Dutch banks, however, maintained an important position in the financing trade and the Amsterdam stock exchange remained an important financial institution. (what’s saved the United provinces was there continued financial dominance)

Section Two: Two Models of European Political Development
•Section Overview
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The United Provinces, like Venice and the Swiss Confederacy,...
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