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UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS
GCE Ordinary Level

MARK SCHEME for the October/November 2009 question paper for the guidance of teachers

2281 ECONOMICS
2281/02 Paper 2 (Structured Questions), maximum raw mark 80

This mark scheme is published as an aid to teachers and candidates, to indicate the requirements of the examination. It shows the basis on which Examiners were instructed to award marks. It does not indicate the details of the discussions that took place at an Examiners’ meeting before marking began, which would have considered the acceptability of alternative answers. Mark schemes must be read in conjunction with the question papers and the report on the examination.



CIE will not enter into discussions or correspondence in connection with these mark schemes.

CIE is publishing the mark schemes for the October/November 2009 question papers for most IGCSE, GCE Advanced Level and Advanced Subsidiary Level syllabuses and some Ordinary Level syllabuses.

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Page 2 1

Mark Scheme: Teachers’ version GCE O LEVEL – October/November 2009

Syllabus 2281

Paper 02

(a) Explanation of the link between the birth rate, the death rate and the net rate of migration. [4] (b) The supply of new workers would decrease, wages might possibly increase, unless immigration increases or more of the older group go back to work. [6] A narrow approach on teachers/schools can get a maximum of 4 marks only. (c) Education has wider benefits to the general society and as such may be provided by the public sector. Comment on the general benefits of education. [5] NB: the word economics is not in the question, so broader points can be accepted. (d) There was less demand in senior schools. Extra expenditure was not such an issue and therefore the government did not have to make a choice between spending extra in the school or spending elsewhere. Not so many educational services were required so there was a smaller opportunity cost between education spending and other expenditure. However, there may be an opportunity cost with what to do with extra spending available for other services assuming total expenditure remains same. There are 2 marks for a correct definition of opportunity cost. [5]

2

(a) Diagram: labels (1), shift of demand curve to the left (1), change in equilibrium price and quantity (1). Explanation (1). [4] (b) Identification of complement connected with cruise ships (2). Discussion of employment prospects with examples and application (4). [6] (c) Discussion of whether all tourism will be affected or whether just part, what proportion, whether there are alternative ways tourists might visit the area other than by plane, whether there are employment opportunities elsewhere which those who work in the tourist industry can do, whether the employment in tourism is mainly seasonal anyway. Could discuss the effect on incomes and expenditure. [10] A maximum of 5 marks only for undeveloped assertions.

3

(a) Length of training, possible outcome from training, likely job prospects now against job prospects later, ability, interest, whether course is free or has to be paid for. [5] A maximum of 3 marks only if only job or college is considered. (b) Discussion of what is meant by specialisation, whether it is just monotonous routine or specialisation but at a higher level. Interest, income and likely job prospects are factors to consider. [5] A maximum of 3 marks only for a one-sided answer. (c) Description of possible changes from start of employment to retirement or resignation. (d) Need to specify which groups and consider level of spending and also type of spending. © UCLES 2009

[4] [6]

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Page 3 4

Mark Scheme: Teachers’ version GCE O LEVEL – October/November 2009

Syllabus 2281

Paper 02

(a) Definition of fixed/variable cost. Recognition that milk costs vary with output. Variable cost. [3] NB: candidates can get all 3...
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