A.I.M. - a Cultural Contingency Approach to Situational Leadership

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Table of Contents
1. INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................... 2 2. HERSEY’S AND BLANCHARD’S SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP MODEL ........... 3 3. SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP & HOFSTEDE’S CULTURAL DIMENSIONS ........ 4

A.I.M.
A Cultural Contingency Approach to Situational Leadership

3.1. Power Distance...............................................................................................................4 3.2. Individualism .................................................................................................................8 3.3. Uncertainty Avoidance ................................................................................................ 11 3.4. Masculinity & Femininity............................................................................................ 14 4. SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP & TROMPENAAR’S CULTURAL DIMENSIONS 17 4.1. Specific vs. Diffuse ....................................................................................................... 17 4.2. Internal vs. External Locus of Control ....................................................................... 21 4.3. Sequential vs. Synchronous Time Orientation ........................................................... 24 4.4. Humane Orientation .................................................................................................... 27 4.5. Universalism and Particularism.................................................................................. 30 4.6. Neutral and Affective ................................................................................................... 32 4.7. Achievement and Ascription ....................................................................................... 34 5. CONCLUSION ..................................................................................................... 36 6. REFERENCES ..................................................................................................... 37

by Alicia Dowland, Ingo Reichert, and Magnus Karlsson

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1. INTRODUCTION
“Whatever a naïve literature on leadership may give us to understand, leaders cannot choose their styles at will; what is feasible depends to a large extent on the

2. HERSEY’S AND BLANCHARD’S SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP MODEL The model is constructed through the use of
Relationship Behavior

two variables, relationship behavior and task behavior. Relationship behavior is defined as the cultural conditioning of a leader’s subordinates” (Hofstede 1980:57). extent to which the leader engages in two-way or The purpose of this report is to examine the cross-cultural applicability of multiway communication, and includes listening, Hersey’s and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Model. The reason behind this facilitating, and supportive behavior (Hersey, purpose is that we believe the Situational Leadership Model to be an excellent model Blanchard, Johnson 2001:118). Task behavior is to improve leader effectiveness, and that it is very functional within the culture of the the extent to which the leader is likely to organize United States of America. However, we also hold the belief that it lacks the capability and define the roles of the follower, and explain to of universal application. the follower what, where, and how activities are For that reason we will, in this report, make an effort of adapting the model to

Task Behavior R4 R3 R2 R1

Figure 2-1: Original Model

supposed to be accomplished (Hersey, Blanchard, Johnson 2001:117). incorporate Hofstede’s and Trompenaar’s cultural dimensions, as well as the cultural aspect of humane orientation. The rationale behind choosing the cultural dimensions that are covered in this paper is our opinion that they are relevant dimensions when discussing effective leadership. The model also incorporates the follower, and the four different readiness levels that him or her can operate within at any given...
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