Ma Ting G0902682F
Security is an important concern in satellite multicast communications. Due to its highly dynamic broadcast nature, the multicast systems generally have a large number of terminal members with frequent join-leave characteristic. Therefore, the satellite networks face significant security challenges, such as eavesdropping and Denial of Service (DoS). What is more, satellite systems are resource-constrained, particularly in the areas of limited transmission power, processing and switching capability for satellites. And satellite channels themselves experience high bit-error rates, which can result in packet loss and loss of security synchronization. In the review of recently updated Digital Video Broadcasting-Interaction Channel for Satellite Distribution Systems (DVB -ICSDS)  and some satellite security literatures, we mainly survey satellite security on key management, key distribution and DoS attack prevention techniques. Key Words: satellite system; key management; key distribution; DoS attack
A Survey on Satellite Network Security1
2.1 Satellite network system model3
2.2 Security Requirements5
3. Threats and Vulnerabilities in Satellite System6
4. Solutions to Attacks in Satellite Network7
4.1 Key distribution7
4.2 Key management17
4.3 DoS (Denial of Service) attack prevention24
Satellite multicast applications now plays a significant role in our daily life. Satellite systems can reach any location on the earth and provide broadcasting services from one transmitter to many receivers. Since born in 1965, satellite communications have developed promising tele-communication and digital video broadcasting via satellite services all over the world. Up to now, especially with the advent of Fourth Generation (4G) of wireless communications systems, Satellite Personal Communications Systems (SPCS) are expected to provide multimedia applications (video and audio conferences) with high data rate transmission. All of satellite applications require secure and reliable guarantee. However, due to highly dynamic join-leave change and broadcast nature of satellite network, it also is vulnerable to malicious threats and attacks, such as Denial of Service, Eavesdropping, and Man-in-the-middle and so on. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview on vulnerabilities of satellite network and its solutions. And in terms of computational cost and system resource cost and so on, we analyze and compare those approaches to find a more effective solution. The rest of this paper is structured as follows: Section 2 describes the model of satellite network and basic process of authentication between Network Control Center (NCC) and Satellite Terminal (ST). Section 3 introduces and categorizes existing security vulnerabilities, especially DoS attacks. In section 4 we explicitly analyze the schemes based on key management and key distribution to prevent and mitigate attacks. Finally, conclusions are drawn in section 5.
2.1 Satellite network system model
Standard DVB -ICSDS  provides typical satellite system architecture as shown in Fig. 1. This satellite interactive network mainly comprises the NCC and ST. The functions of these two main components are: NCC: a NCC is mainly responsible for controlling and monitoring functions. It generates control and timing signals for managing the authentication of users in Satellite Interactive Network. ST: A ST sends control messages such as connection requests to the NCC. These messages are transmitted via satellite using data transfer protocols.
Fig. 1. Satellite network system model
In a satellite network, each ST and NCC is assigned with a unique Media Access Control (MAC) address. Every ST shares a secret session key with NCC which is pre-computed by...