1.1 The use of celebrity endorsements for for-profit organizations3 1.2 The rise in use of celebrity endorsement in NPOs4
1.3 Examples of celebrity endorsement4
1.4 Choosing a suitable celebrity endorser5
2.1 Purpose of Study7
2.2 Research questions8
2.3 Research objectives:8
3. Literature Review and Hypothesis Development9
3.1 Influence of celebrity endorsement on behavioral component of attitude9 3.2 Celebrity endorsement for NPOs and for profit organization9 3.3 Attributes of celebrity endorsers10
3.3.1 Perceived attractiveness of celebrity endorsers11
3.3.2 Perceived credibility of celebrity endorsers16
4. Conceptual Framework and Conclusion21
1.1 The use of celebrity endorsements for for-profit organizations
The use of celebrity endorsement as a marketing platform has been increasingly engaged by companies. This is because it has been showed that celebrities have significant effects on attitudes toward the product and purchase intentions. (Friedman & Friedman, 1979, as cited in Gurel-Atay, 2010, p. 57)
According to Agrawal and Kamakura (1995), it is estimated that approximately 20% of all advertisements use some form of celebrity endorsement to inform and persuade. In addition, a recent estimate has indicated that approximately 25 percent of all American commercials employ the use of celebrity endorsers (Shimp, 2000). In 2001, IEG Endorsement Insider, an advertising trade publication, estimated that celebrities directly received more than $800 million in 2001 (Agrawal & Kamakura,1995).
Using celebrities as the source of brand messages has acknowledged advantages. It is without doubt that celebrity endorsers are able to break through the media clutter and hold viewers’ attention (Dyson &Turco, 1998; Erdogan & Baker, 1999; Charbonneau & Garland, 2005), contribute to brand name recognition, create positive associations with the brand and assist in developing distinct and credible brand personalities (Kamins, 1990; Ohanian, 1990; Charbonneau &Garland, 2005). In support of this practice, research has also indicated that celebrity endorsements can result in more favorable advertisement ratings and product evaluations (Dean and Biswas, 2001) as well as resulting in a substantial positive impact on the ﬁnancial returns for the companies that use them. (Erdogan, 2001)
1.2 The rise in use of celebrity endorsement in NPOs
Following the success of celebrity endorsements for for-profit organizations, NPOs have started to use celebrities in their marketing. While ‘celebrity endorsement’ is not a new method of marketing an idea, its application to humanitarian issues is relatively recent (Samman, Auliffe & MacLachlan, 2009). The Washington bureau chief for Fox News Channel views “the growing trend of celebrity activists appearing on television to lobby for particular causes as mutually advantageous to the celebrity and the news media” (West, 2008, pg 5).
In response to this trend, in 2006, Look to the Stars, a Web site devoted to reporting on celebrity giving, began operations. The website includes “more than 2,500 famous people against 1,700 charities and foundations”. (Mark, 2011, pg 3)
1.3 Examples of celebrity endorsement
Together with Benjamin McKenzie and Pete Wentz, she endorsed Invisible Children, which is a NPO that was started to educate the world about the war in Uganda where children are abducted and forced to join, fight and possibly die in the Lord's Resistance Army (Simon, 2011). She models an Acholi necklace by Satya Jewelry and 100% of the proceeds from sales will go toward Invisible Children. This piece is meant to promote peace and education in Northern Uganda...