There have been a number of market research surveys that states information on the barriers of women’s career in hotel industry. Three general areas of literature that are identified to be relevant to this study: definition of ‘’glass ceiling’’, the barriers of female managers in advancing to a higher level in their career in hotel industry and breaking through the ‘’glass ceiling which includes the factor of salary and promotion, social attitudes, work-family conflict, and training as independent variables. Whereby, capability of work, networking, morale support, and confidence and knowledge are the variables which moderate the independent variables towards the impact on glass-ceiling.
2. The Barriers of Female Managers in Hotel Industry.
The phrase “glass ceiling” refers to invisible barriers to a person in order to advance to a higher position (Flanders, 1994). This study focus on the existence of glass ceiling on women managers in middle management in achieving upper level in hotel industry in Malaysia. Even though there are Asian countries with labor equality laws but there are still women executives, which are underrepresented in the region. In Singapore, 95 per cent of women middle managers agreed that there was a glass ceiling preventing them from moving up to senior positions. ( Li and Leung, 2001). There are some other cases which highlighted by Simpson (2000), Jagger and Maxwell (1998) who argued that the ‘’glass ceiling’’ is time bounded and that age is a critical discerning factor. He stated that older women may be disadvantaged, meanwhile young women has great opportunities than their male counterparts in management. Women still under represented in management in most countries and in senior management everywhere....