Zoonotic Diseases

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Prevalence of Zoonotic Diseases (T.B and Brucellosis) in Animals Domesticated in Pishin District

Research Report submitted to

&

For the complete fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of

MASTER OF SCIENCE (MS)

In

BIOTECHNOLOGY AND INFORMATICS

By

AEMAL TAREEN

Supervisor
Dr. DOST MUHAMMAD BALOCH
Faculty of Biotechnology and Informatics, BUITEMS, Quetta

Co-Supervisor
PROFESSOR Dr. MUHAMMAD AZAM KHAN KAKAR
Faculty of Biotechnology and Informatics, BUITEMS, Quetta

PREVALENCE OF ZOONOTIC DISEASES (TUBERCULOSIS AND BRUCELLOSIS) IN ANIMALS DOMOISTICATED IN PISHIN DISTRICT (BALOCHISTAN)

Abstract
This report presents a combined epidemiological and economic framework for assessing zoonoses using a ‘‘one health’’ concept. The framework allows for an understanding of the cross-sector economic influence of zoonoses using improved risk analysis and listing a range of analytical tools. The goal of the framework is to link the check outputs of animal and human disease transmission models, economic influence models and assessment of risk management options to gain improved understanding of factors affecting the acceptance of risk management plans so that investment planning includes the most promising interventions (or sets of interventions in an integrated fashion). A more complete understanding of the costs of the disease and the costs and benefits of control measures would promote broader application of the most efficient and effective control measures, contributing to improved animal and human health, better livelihood outcomes for the poor and macroeconomic growth. Keywords: Zoonoses, Tuberculosis, Brucellosis

Acknowledgements / Foreword
IN THE NAME OF ALLAH, THE BENEFICENT, THE MERCIFUL
I would like to express my sincere gratefulness to Relief International for financial support and giving us the chance of working on this project and contribution towards betterment of humans and livestock. I am very grateful to my project supervisor Dr. Dost Muhammad Baloch, co-supervisor Dr. Muhammad Azam Khan Kakar, Dr. Ejaz of RI, Dr Abdul. Rehman, the lab in charge of DI lab Quetta and all my fellows & friends for their kind co-operation and encouragement for completing this Project Successfully. I also express my gratitude to Department of Biotechnology and Informatics for providing the necessary requirement for Completion of Work.

Table of Contents
Abstractii
Acknowledgements / Forewordiii
Table of Contentsiv
List of Figuresv
List of Tablesvi
Terminology / Notationvii
Acronyms / Abbreviationsvii
1Introduction1
1.1Statement of the Problem:2
1.2Research Hypotheses:4
1.3Significance of the Study:4
1.4Purpose of the Research:4
2Literature Review5
3Materials & Methods10
4Results / Discussion12
5Conclusions15
References16
List of Figures

Figure 1: Cycle of M. Bovis Transmission between cattle and humans. The thickness of the arrows Suggests level of probability1

Figure 2: Spread of Brucellosis between cattle& Humans2

List of Tables

Table 1: Animal Count Pishin Dist. (2005)10

Terminology / Notation

Acronyms / Abbreviations

SppSpecies
DLSDepartment of Livestock services
T.B Tuberculosis
L.ULivestock Unit

Introduction
The usage Zoonoses, or Zoonotic diseases, are caused by infectious agents that are transmissible under natural conditions from animals to humans. Zoonoses may rise from wild or domestic animals or from products of animal source. A number of infectious diseases, including viruses, bacteria, and parasites, can be transmitted from animals to people through a variety of infection routes, including animal bites, vectors (i.e., insects), and animal-to-human contact (i.e., inhalation of respiratory droplets or skin-to-skin contact). Some examples of common Zoonotic diseases include lyme disease, rabies, ringworm, and plague. . Zoonoses have been known since early historical spells....
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