BROADCAST NEWS HANDBOOK
WRITING, REPORTING, AND PRODUCING IN A CONVERGING MEDIA WORLD S e c o n d E d i t i o n
C. A. Tuggle
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Texas Christian University
Boston Burr Ridge, IL Dubuque, IA Madison, WI New York San Francisco St. Louis Bangkok Bogotá Caracas Kuala Lumpur Lisbon London Madrid Mexico City Milan Montreal New Delhi Santiago Seoul Singapore Sydney Taipei Toronto
tug53514_fm.qxd 5/6/03 5:01 PM Page ii
BROADCAST NEWS HANDBOOK: WRITING, REPORTING, AND PRODUCING IN A CONVERGING MEDIA WORLD Published by McGraw-Hill, a business of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1221 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY, 10020. Copyright © 2004, 2001, by The McGrawHill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written consent of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., including, but not limited to, in any network or other electronic storage or transmission, or broadcast for distance learning. Some ancillaries, including electronic and print components, may not be available to customers outside the United States. This book is printed on acid-free paper. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 DOC/DOC 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 ISBN 0-07-285351-4 Publisher: Phillip A. Butcher Developmental editor: Laura Lynch Editorial assistant: Christine Fowler Senior marketing manager: Sally Constable Lead media producer: Erin Marean/Jessica Bodie Project manager: Jean R. Starr Production supervisor: Carol A. Bielski Designer: Sharon C. Spurlock Supplemental associate: Kathleen Boylan Permissions: Marty Granahan Cover design: Amy Evans McClure Typeface: 10/12 Palatino Compositor: Lachina Publishing Services Printer: R. R. Donnelley and Sons Inc. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Tuggle, C. A. Broadcast news handbook : writing, reporting, and producing in a converging media world / C.A. Tuggle, Forrest Carr, Suzanne Huffman.—2nd ed. p. cm. Includes index. ISBN 0-07-285351-4 (spiral bound : alk. paper) 1. Television broadcasting of news—Handbooks, manuals, etc. I. Carr, Forrest II. Huffman, Suzanne. III. Title. PN4784.T4T76 2004 070.1'95—dc21 2003046338
tug53514_fm.qxd 5/6/03 5:01 PM Page iii
From C. A. Tuggle To my wife Tracey and children Brynne, Bethany, and Jenny, and to the memory of my father, T. B. Tuggle, my inspiration to always do my best. From Forrest Carr To the memory of Bruce Breslow, a good friend and the finest photojournalist I have ever known. From Suzanne Huffman To my husband August F. Schilling III and to my parents, Carrol Statton Huffman and Margaret Anne Byrd Huffman.
tug53514_fm.qxd 5/6/03 5:01 PM Page iv
ABOUT THE AUTHORS
Dr. C. A. Tuggle began teaching at the university level in 1994 after a 16-year broadcasting career in local television news and media relations. He spent the majority of his career at WFLA-TV, the NBC affiliate in Tampa. He has held numerous newsroom positions, but spent the bulk of his career reporting and producing. He covered both news and sports, including six Super Bowls. Tuggle earned undergraduate and master’s degrees from the University of Florida in Gainesville, and his Ph.D. from the University of Alabama in Tuscaloosa. He is currently teaching electronic communication at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. His research has appeared in nearly a dozen scholarly journals and trade publications, and centers on television news practices and procedures. He regularly conducts writing workshops for local stations, professional and academic groups, and high school journalists. He has overseen student newscasts at three universities and his students have won numerous regional and national awards. In addition, he helped to develop more than 50 interns during his professional...