SANJUKTA BANERJEE (1AY09BT019)
DEPARTMENT OF BIOTECHNOLOGY
ACHARYA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
ACHARYA Dr.SARVEPALLI RADHAKRISHNAN ROAD
SOLDEVANAHALLI, HESARAGATTA ROAD,
3. Health benefits of honey
4. Materials and method
5. Brief protocol
Honey is a sweet food made by bees using nectar from flowers. Honey bees transform nectar (saccharide) into honey by a process of regurgitation and evaporation. (Regurgitation is the process of bringing back the food into the mouth after it has been swallowed, usually characterized by the presence of undigested food or blood. It is used by a number of species to feed their young. It is carried out number of times, until it is partially digested. The bees do the regurgitation and digestion as a group. After the last regurgitation, the aqueous solution is still high in water, so the process continues by evaporation of much of the water and enzymatic transformation. It is then stored in honeycomb cells. After the final regurgitation, the honeycomb is left unsealed. However, the nectar is still high in both water content and natural yeasts, which, unchecked would cause the sugars in the nectar to ferment).
As a result, Honey is produced by a process of regurgitation by honey bees, which is stored in the beehives as a primary food source. Honey gets its sweetness from the monosaccharide- fructose, glucose and approximately the same relative sweetness as that of granulated sugar. It has attractive chemical properties for baking, and a distinctive flavor that leads some people to prefer it over sugar and other sweeteners. Most microorganisms do not grow in honey because of its low water activity of 0.6. However, honey sometimes contains dormant endospores of the bacterium Clostridium botulinum which can be dangerous to infants, as the endospores can transform into toxin-producing bacteria in the infant’s immature intestinal tract, leading to illness and even death. Flavors of honey vary based on the nectar source, and various types and grades of honey are available. It is also used in various medicinal traditions to treat illness (ailments). The study of pollens and spores in raw honey (melissopalynology) can determine floral sources of honey. Bees carry an electrostatic charge whereby they attract other particles in addition to pollen, which become incorporated into their honey that all together provide a good fingerprint of the environment where where the honey comes from. Pollen analysis can therefore be useful to determine and control the geographical and botanical origin of honeys even if sensory and physic-chemical analyses are also needed for a correct diagnosis of botanical origin. Moreover, pollen analysis provides some important information about honey extraction, filtration, fermentation, some kinds of adulteration and hygienic aspects such as contamination with mineral dust, soot, or starch grains. Honey’s natural sugars are dehydrated, which prevents fermentation, with added enzymes to modify and transform their chemical composition and pH. Invertases and Digestive acids hydrolyze sucrose to give the monosaccharides - glucose and fructose. The invertase is one of these enzymes synthesized by the body of the insect. Honey is the most famous rediscovered remedy that has been used to promote wound and burn healing and also to treat infected wounds. The antimicrobial activity of bee honey has been attributed to several properties of...