Wind Energy

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Definition of Wind Energy “Wind Energy - Energy received from the movement of the wind across the earth. This energy is a result of the heating of our oceans, earth, and atmosphere by the sun. Turbines convert the kinetic energy of wind into mechanical or electrical energy that can be used for power.” The German physicist Albert Betz calculated in 1919 the possible maximum amount of energy that can be extracted out of wind energy. He came to the result of 59.3% that can be extracted and named this calculation Betz' law. Further the extracted energy is converted into electricity with an efficiency of 70% and would give all together a total efficiency of 41%. Observing the world's physical supply of wind energy you will come to the result that 200-times more wind energy is supplied then what the planet earth's population consumes . Definition of Wind Actually wind is a function of the sun thus wind is a solar energy. This signifies that wind is a cause of the differential heating of the earth's surface. Local winds are due to the faster heating of the onshore and slower heating of the offshore because of their specific temperature. Onshore warm air which is less dense rises up into the sky. Where cool air from the sea's surface with a higher pressure moves to the onshore and fills in the place of the warm air. This is caused by the nature which is always trying to find a balance thus a wind accrues. http://www.hydro.com.au/system/files/ images/Flash/convection-static.jpg History of Wind Energy More then 3000 years ago the history of wind energy in form of using wind mills began in Persia today's known Iran. Wind energy which is one of the oldest energy forms was used to pump water or to grind grain. Soon this technology spread over Middle East, Central Asia and then to China. The windmills were turning horizontal and the axis was fixed vertically. In the late 12th century wind mills finally reached Europe where the Britain’s and French were the first country's to establish this wind energy system. The difference to the wind mills out of Persia and Asia were that now the rotors were spinning vertical and the axis was mounted horizontally which is also now the most common used technique. Wind mills that were able to produce electricity weren't invented until the late 19th century. At the same time on two different continents in 1987 two scientists for one Charles F. Brush out of America and for the other Prof. James Blyth out of Scotland had a breake through in the windmill technology. The break through was to generate electricity with the help of wind energy. Mr. Brush had developed a wind mill that was able to generate 12kW and light up 350 bulbs. Prof. Blyth's invented windmill didn't have as much capacity and was only able to light up 10x25V light bulbs.

WI / IM – Advanced English for Engineers – University Pforzheim – Handout Wind Energy

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The research in renewable energy weren't that significant because of the cheap fossil fuels thus there was no demand in this sector. After the oil crises occurred in 1973 the demand of renewable energy rose again and so did the interest in developing more efficient wind power technology's. In 1990 there were already a number of 405 in Germany installed wind turbines with a total capacity of 55MW. Up to June 2011 22,284 wind turbines were been installed with a capacity of 29,071MW and a total feed-in into the grid in 2011 of 47TWh which was a market share of 7.7 percent of the total electricity supply in Germany by the total electricity consumption of 614TWh. Taking a view on only renewable electricity supply you will notice that in 2011 wind energy had a market share of 39.7 percent. The wind industry is also the major employer in the renewable energy sector with more then 100,000 employees. Different parts of a wind turbine 1. Foundation: The foundation of the wind power station is very important because it needs to take a lot of pressure on a small surface. It is important to...
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