Wildlife Protection in India

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  • Topic: Fauna of India, Tiger, India
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Wildlife of India
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Part of a series on|
Wildlife of India|
Biodiversity[show]Flora and Fauna
Molluscs · Ants · Odonates
Butterflies · Moths · Spiders
Fish · Amphibians · Reptiles · Birds
Mammals · Endangered species|
Protected areas[show]Protected areas (List)
National parks
Biosphere reserves
Wildlife sanctuaries
Ramsar wetland sites
Conservation areas
Private protected areas
Reserved/protected forests
Conservation/community reserves
Communal forests
Marine and littoral protected areas|
Related topics[show]Natural history · Ecoregions
Forestry · Tourism
Botanical and Zoological gardens
Environmental issues|
Ministry · Service · Survey
Wildlife Institute · Forest Institute
Zoo Authority · Zoo Outreach
Tiger · Elephant
Associated acts
Indian Forest Act, 1927
Wildlife Protection Act, 1972
Wildlife Protection Act, 2003|
v · d · e|

The most endangered Indian top predator of 2010, the dhole is on edge of extinction. Less than 2500 members of the species remain in the world. The wildlife of India is a mix of species of number of different types of organism.[1][clarification needed] The region's rich and diverse wildlife is preserved in 89 national parks, 13 Bio reserves and 400+ wildlife sanctuaries across the country.[2] Since India is home to a number of rare and threatened animal species, wildlife management in the country is essential to preserve these species.[3] According to one study, India along with 17 mega diverse countries is home to about 60-70% of the world's biodiversity.[4] India, lying within the Indomalaya ecozone, is home to about 7.6% of all mammalian, 12.6% of avian, 6.2% of reptilian, and 6.0% of flowering plant species.[5] Many ecoregions, such as the shola forests, also exhibit extremely high rates of endemism; overall, 33% of Indian plant species are endemic.[6][7] India's forest cover ranges from the tropical rainforest of the Andaman Islands, Western Ghats, and Northeast India to the coniferous forest of the Himalaya. Between these extremes lie the sal-dominated moist deciduous forest of eastern India; teak-dominated dry deciduous forest of central and southern India; and the babul-dominated thorn forest of the central Deccan and western Gangetic plain.[8] Important Indian trees include the medicinal neem, widely used in rural Indian herbal remedies. The pipal fig tree, shown on the seals of Mohenjo-daro, shaded the Gautama Buddha as he sought enlightenment. Many Indian species are descendants of taxa originating in Gondwana, to which India originally belonged. Peninsular India's subsequent movement towards, and collision with, the Laurasian landmass set off a mass exchange of species. However, volcanism and climatic change 20 million years ago caused the extinction of many endemic Indian forms.[9] Soon thereafter, mammals entered India from Asia through two zoogeographical passes on either side of the emerging Himalaya.[8] As a result, among Indian species, only 12.6% of mammals and 4.5% of birds are endemic, contrasting with 45.8% of reptiles and 55.8% of amphibians.[5] Notable endemics are the Nilgiri leaf monkey and the brown and carmine Beddome's toad of the Western Ghats. India contains 172, or 2.9%, of IUCN-designated threatened species.[10] These include the Asiatic lion, the Bengal tiger, and the Indian white-rumped vulture, which suffered a near-extinction from ingesting the carrion of diclofenac-treated cattle. In recent decades, human encroachment has posed a threat to India's wildlife; in response, the system of national parks and protected areas, first established in 1935, was substantially expanded. In 1972, India enacted the Wildlife Protection Act and Project Tiger to safeguard crucial...
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