BY CAPT TANMOY ROY
1Wildlife includes all non-domesticated plants, animals, and other organisms. Domesticating wild plant and animal species for human benefit has occurred many times all over the planet, and has a major impact on the environment, both positive and negative. Wildlife can be found in all ecosystems, Deserts, rain forests, plains, and other areas including the most developed urban sites all have distinct forms of wildlife. While the term in popular culture usually refers to animals that are untouched by human factors, most scientists agree that wildlife around the world is impacted by human activities.
2High light the salient feature of wild life of India and the protection act.
I. INDIAN WILDLIFE
II. WILDLIFE PROTECTION ACT OF 1972
III. THE DRAFT WILD LIFE (PROTECTION) AMENDMENT BILL, 2010 IV. CONSERVATION OF WILDLIFE IN INDIA
V. VARIOUS PROJECTS
3The wildlife of India is a mix of species of diverse origins. The region's rich and diverse wildlife is preserved in numerous national parks and wildlife sanctuaries across the country. According to one study, India is home to about 60-70% of the world's biodiversity. India, lying within the Indomalaya Eco Zone, is home to about 7.6% of all mammalian, 12.6% of avian, 6.2% of reptilian, and 6.0% of flowering plant species. Many eco regions, such as the Shola forests, also exhibit extremely high rates of endemism; overall, 33% of Indian plant species are endemic. India's forest cover ranges from the tropical rainforest of the Andaman Islands, Western Ghats, and Northeast India to the coniferous forest of the Himalaya. Between these extremes lie the Sal-dominated moist deciduous forest of eastern India; teak-dominated dry deciduous forest of central and southern India; and the babul-dominated thorn forest of the central Deccan and western Gangetic plain. Important Indian trees include the medicinal Neem, widely used in rural Indian herbal remedies.
4Many Indian species are descendants of Taxa family originating in Gondwana, to which India originally belonged. Peninsular India's subsequent movement towards, and collision with, the Laurasian landmass set off a mass exchange of species. However, volcanism and climatic changes 20 million years ago caused the extinction of many endemic Indian forms. Soon thereafter, mammals entered India from Asia through two zoogeographical passes on either side of the emerging Himalaya. As a result, among Indian species, only 12.6% of mammals and 4.5% of birds are endemic, contrasting with 45.8% of reptiles and 55.8% of amphibians. Notable endemics are the Nilgiri leaf monkey and the brown and carmine Beddome's toad of the Western Ghats. India contains 172, or 2.9%, of IUCN-designated threatened species. These include the Asiatic lion, the Bengal tiger, and the Indian white-rumped vulture, which suffered a near-extinction from ingesting the carrion of Diclofenac-treated cattle.
5The gradual emergence of the human beings as the most dominant species among all other species of animals and the attempt of the human beings to set them apart from other species is the main underlying cause of the contemporary environmental disaster. The main reason behind a threat to the wildlife and the ecosystem is the constantly growing deforestation, poaching and negligence towards animals and nature. The Indian Government has started nature projects like, Project Tiger, Nature Camps, Jungle Lodges, etc. to encourage wildlife awareness among the common people. Besides preserving the natural heritage, these projects also promote eco-tourism.
WILDLIFE PROTECTION ACT OF 1972:-
6In 1972 by the Government of India. Prior to 1972, India only had five designated national parks. Among other reforms, the Act established schedules of protected plant and animal species; hunting or otherwise harvesting these species was...