BY CAPT TANMOY ROY
1Wildlife includes all non-domesticated plants, animals, and other organisms. Domesticating wild plant and animal species for human benefit has occurred since the evolution of mankind, and has a major impact on the environment, both positive and negative. Wildlife can be found in all Ecosystems, Deserts, Rain Forests, plains, and other areas including cities. Most scientists agree that wildlife around the world is impacted by human activities. What is 'wildlife'?
2According to the wild life protection act of 1972, the Section 2(37) defines wildlife to include “any animal, bees, butterflies, crustacean, fish and moths; and aquatic or land vegetation which forms part of any habitat.” Apart from the common understanding of wildlife as any animal, bees, butterfly etc. the WLPA includes within the definition of wildlife both the aquatic and land vegetation, which forms part of any habitat. The import of such a definition is significant, as destruction of a habitat would amount to the destruction of wildlife itself. The Wildlife Protection Act goes beyond the common understanding of wild animal while defining it in two parts. One is where wild animal is defined to be “any animal found wild in nature”.
3. To high light the salient feature of Wild Life Protection Act in India.
(a) Part I - Indian Wildlife
(b) Part II - Wildlife Protection Act Of 1972
(c) Part III - Criticalities
(d) Part IV - The Draft Wild Life (Protection) Amendment Bill, 2010 (e) Part V - Conservation of Wildlife in India
Part I - Indian Wildlife
4The wildlife of India is a mix of species of diverse origins. The region's rich and diverse wildlife is preserved in numerous national parks and wildlife sanctuaries across the country. According to one study, India is home to about 60-70% of the world's biodiversity. India, lying within the Indomalaya Eco Zone, is home to about 7.6% of all mammalian, 12.6% of avian, 6.2% of reptilian, and 6.0% of flowering plant species. Many eco regions, such as the Shola forests, also exhibit extremely high rates of endemism; overall, 33% of Indian plant species are endemic. India's forest cover ranges from the tropical rainforest of the Andaman Islands, Western Ghats, and Northeast India to the coniferous forest of the Himalaya. Between these extremes lie the Sal-dominated moist deciduous forest of Eastern India; teak-dominated dry deciduous forest of Central and Southern India; and the babul-dominated thorn forest of the central Deccan and western Gangetic plain. Important Indian trees include the medicinal Neem, widely used in rural Indian herbal remedies. 5.Many Indian species are descendants of Taxa family originating in Gondwana, to which India originally belonged. Peninsular India's subsequent movement towards, and collision with, the Laurasian landmass set off a mass exchange of species. However, volcanism and climatic changes 20 million years ago caused the extinction of many endemic Indian forms. Soon thereafter, mammals entered India from Asia through two zoogeographical passes on either side of the emerging Himalaya. As a result, among Indian species, only 12.6% of mammals and 4.5% of birds are endemic, contrasting with 45.8% of reptiles and 55.8% of amphibians. Notable endemics are the Nilgiri leaf monkey and the Brown and Carmine Beddome's toad of the Western Ghats. India contains 172, or 2.9%, of IUCN-designated threatened species. These include the Asiatic Lion, the Bengal Tiger, and the Indian white-ramped vulture, which suffered a near-extinction from ingesting the carrion of Diclofenac-treated cattle. 6. The gradual emergence of the human beings as the most dominant species among all other species of animals and the attempt of the human beings to set them apart from other species is the main underlying cause of the contemporary...