Why Was the Weimar Republic in Germany Able to Survive the Crisis Years Between 1919 and 1923 but Not Those Between 1929 and 1933?

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After the First World War ended in 1918, Germany was in a chaos. Although the Allies offered peace, they demanded a democratic government in Germany. The Kaiser abdicated the throne while Ebert formed the Weimar Republic and established the constitution in 1919. However the establishment of this government was unstable with opposition from both left and right wings. Even more, the German Parliament (Reichstag) relied on the cooperation of the coalitions of governments which resulted in political weakness of this new democratic system because these coalitions often broke up. Yet, the Weimar Republic was still able to survive through these years until 1929 as it was relatively stable before the Wall Street Crash. However, the weaknesses in the Weimar Republic served as potential factors for being overthrown by Hitler later in 1933. In this essay, the survival of the Republic will be analysed chronologically according to political, economic and social factors. Ever since its establishment after the First World War, oppositions parties such as the left wing Communist (Spartacist) and Kaiser’s supporters from the right had crashes and revolts which caused high causalities. The important ones such as in January 1919, the Spartacists were defeated by the Freikorps (some anti-Communists made use by the government) resulting more than 2000 causalities. Also, the right wing leader Kapp led a Kapp Putsch in 1920, which failed only because of the strike from the trade unions. Furthermore, the army refused to defend the Republic and several politicians were assassinated at this time. All these added to a sense of mess and instability to the Republic. Besides, the ruthlessness of Ebert in the crash with the Spartacists deteriorated the support from the Germans. As a result, the Republic was so weak in its early years of foundation. Meanwhile, the government signed the Treaty of Versailles which most Germans felt betrayed by the Allies as they had expected the...
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