What Is Morphology

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  • Topic: Word, Inflection, Lexeme
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CHAPTER 1

What is morphology?
مورفولوژی چست؟

CHAPTER OUTLINE
نمای کلی فصل :

In this chapter you will learn what morphology is, namely the study of word formation. ◆ We will look at the distinction between words and morphemes, between types, tokens, and lexemes and between inflection and derivation. ◆ We will also consider the reasons why languages have morphology.

در این فصل شما با مورفولوژی آشنا می شوید، که به صورت بندی کلمات می پردازد.

◆ ما به تفاوت میان کلمات و واژک ها، الگو ها، نشانه ها، مدخل ها و بین اشتقاق و انعطاف می پردازیم. ◆ ما همپنین به این می پردازیم که چرا زبان موفولوژی دارد.

1.1 Introduction

The short answer to the question with which we begin this text is that morphology is the study of word formation, including the ways new words are coined in the languages of the world, and the way forms of words are varied depending on how they’re used in sentences. As a native speaker of your language you have intuitive knowledge of how to form new words, and every day you recognize and understand new words that you’ve never heard before.

پاسخ کوتاه به این سوال، که با آن به شروع این متن می پردازیم این است که مورفولوژی مطالعه شکل گیری کلمه است، از جمله راه هایی که کلمات جدید در زبان های جهان ابداع می شوند و فرم های مورد استفاده در جملات که بسته به نوع آنها متفاوت از کلمات هستند. به عنوان یک سخنگوی بومی زبان خود، شما ذاتاً از دانش چگونه شکل دادن کلمات جدید برخوردارید، و هر روز شما با کلماتی جدید مواجه می شوید که هرگز آنها را نشنیده اید.

Stop and think a minute:

• Suppose that splinch is a verb that means ‘step on broken glass’; what is its past tense? • Speakers of English use the suffixes -ize (crystallize) and -ify (codify) to form verbs from nouns. If you had to form a verb that means ‘do something the way ex-Prime Minister Tony Blair does it’, which suffix would you use? How about a verb meaning ‘do something the way ex- President Bill Clinton does it’? • It’s possible to rewash or reheat something. Is it possible to relove, reexplode, or rewiggle something?

3برای چند لحضه فکرکنید:

• فرض کنید که splinch یک فعل است که به معنی "گام برداشتن بر شیشه های شکسته"؛ ساختار زمان گذشته آن چیست؟ • متکلمان به زبان انگلیسی با استفاده از پسوند -ize (crystallize) و -ify (codify) از اسم، فعل می سازند. اگر شما مجبور به ساخت فعلی بودید به معنی "این کار را همان گونه انجام بده که نخست وزیر سابق، تونی بلر انجام می داد" چه پسوندی را به کار می بردید؟ در مورد فعلی به معنی " این کار را همان گونه انجام بده که ریاست جمهوری سابق، بیل کلینتون انجام می داد" چه طور؟ • ممکن است چیزی را rewash یا reheat کنیم. آیا این امکان وجود داردکه relove، reexplode، یا rewiggle اتفاق بیفتد؟

Chances are that you answered the first question with the past tense splinched (pronounced [splɪnʧt])1, the second with the verbs Blairify and Clintonize, and that you’re pretty sure that relove, reexplode, and rewiggle are weird, if not downright impossible. Your ability to make up these new words, and to make judgments about words that you think could never exist, suggests that you have intuitive knowledge of the principles of word formation in your language, even if you can’t articulate what they are. Native speakers of other languages have similar knowledge of their languages. This book is about that knowledge, and about how we as linguists can find out what it is. Throughout this book, you will be looking into how you form and understand new words, and how speakers of other languages do the same. Many of our examples will come from English – since you’re reading this book, I assume we have that language in common – but we’ll also look beyond English to how words are formed in languages with which you might be familiar, and languages which you might never have encountered before. You’ll learn not only the nuts and bolts of word formation – how things are put together in various languages and what to call those nuts and bolts – but also what this knowledge says about how the human mind is organized.

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