The most important factor influencing students’ learning, especially for students who struggle to learn academically skills, is an effective teacher. According to Sanders (1996), research shows that students who are assigned with the most effective teachers in three years score as many 50 percentile points higher on achievement compared to students who are assigned to the least effective teachers (Sanders & Rivers, 1996). During years research has documented many of the effective practices for students that struggle in academic skills; reading, writing, and math. In few words all these practices are called Effective Instruction. The base of Effective Instruction is a high quality core instruction in general education classrooms (Tier 1) and supplementary instruction when students struggle to learn its content (Tier 2).
Providing Effective Instruction for the full range of students in elementary classroom is a major purpose of inclusion, regarding reading, writing and mathematic basic skills while addressing the needs of students who struggle to it is not simple. Elementary school teachers try to figure out how to distribute their time among students to ensure that they are providing effective instruction and addressing students’ needs. That is why many teachers used strategies like cooperative learning and peer tutoring to “engage students in learning together collaboratively to better address student needs” (McLeskey, Rosenberg, & Westling, 2010; p. 287).
Delivering effective instruction in those basic skills (math, reading, and writing) is not a simple task. The principles of effective instruction include teacher behaviors in delivering instruction, grouping practices, and delivering effective Tier 1 and Tier 2.
A. Teacher behaviors in delivering instruction: Effective Instruction requires careful planning and organization of classrooms activities.
Teacher behaviors are related to effective Tier 1 or core instruction. This includes teachers’ actions when beginning a lesson, presenting information, guiding students practice after instruction, correcting student work and providing feedback, planning and carrying out students seat work, and following up the lesson. These components of effective instruction and related lesson structure provide a foundation for effective core instruction in general education classrooms. Also teachers can use Tier 2 instruction for students who struggle learning basic skills; direct instruction, “model that uses teacher explanation and modeling combined with students practice feedback to teach concepts and procedural skills” (Eggen & Kauchack, 2006, p. 292). The author Rossenshine states a list of components of Effective Instruction: Lesson Delivery and Follow up: 1. Daily review and checking homework
2. Presentation of material
3. Guided practice
4. Correctives and Feedback
6. Weekly and monthly review
B. Grouping Students to Support the Delivery of Effective Instruction. Grouping Students is efficient, as the teacher conveys information to a large number of students quickly. Many teachers begun to use alternatives to whole-group instructions, to ensure that they better meet the needs of all students. These alternative grouping, peer tutoring, and ability grouping. Strategies could be use to reduce the number of students and offer the teacher the opportunity to provide intensive, explicit instruction and closely monitored to ensure effectiveness. According to McLeskey these options of grouping are; homogeneous ability groups, mixed-ability groups, cooperative groups, individual tutoring, peer tutoring (McLeskey, et.al. 2010; p. 290 -292).
Ability grouping is an appealing approach allows teachers to group students based on common needs, and simplifies planning and teaching so that teacher can focus in students specific needs. However, some educators see this type of instruction as negative...