The most important factor influencing students’ learning, especially for students who struggle to learn academically skills, is an effective teacher. According to Sanders (1996), research shows that students who are assigned with the most effective teachers in three years score as many 50 percentile points higher on achievement compared to students who are assigned to the least effective teachers (Sanders & Rivers, 1996). During years research has documented many of the effective practices for students that struggle in academic skills; reading, writing, and math. In few words all these practices are called Effective Instruction. The base of Effective Instruction is a high quality core instruction in general education classrooms (Tier 1) and supplementary instruction when students struggle to learn its content (Tier 2).
Providing Effective Instruction for the full range of students in elementary classroom is a major purpose of inclusion, regarding reading, writing and mathematic basic skills while addressing the needs of students who struggle to it is not simple. Elementary school teachers try to figure out how to distribute their time among students to ensure that they are providing effective instruction and addressing students’ needs. That is why many teachers used strategies like cooperative learning and peer tutoring to “engage students in learning together collaboratively to better address student needs” (McLeskey, Rosenberg, & Westling, 2010; p. 287).
Delivering effective instruction in those basic skills (math, reading, and writing) is not a simple task. The principles of effective instruction include teacher behaviors in delivering instruction, grouping practices, and delivering effective Tier 1 and Tier 2.
A. Teacher behaviors in delivering instruction: Effective Instruction requires careful planning and organization of classrooms activities.
Teacher behaviors are...