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Leung Cheuk Wing, Wayne Student No.: 11022209

EDS 6004: Educational Reform and Development in Global Context Lecturer: Dr. Lee Moo Sung

The educational, social and economic influences of Shadow Education on education systems in East Asia Abstract Public examinations are assessments for testing students’ knowledge obtained from their schools. They serve as indicators by universities to select students into specific programs. The examinations are important because they influence students’ future careers and prospects. Since these examinations are imperative, many parents would like to pay extra for service that can assist their children to improve their examination results. Such service is known as the Shadow Education of private tutoring. Nowadays, private tutoring industry has grown rapidly in most East Asia countries such as China, Hong Kong, Japan, South Korea and Taiwan. The purpose of this research paper is to examine how the fast growing private tutoring has a profound effect on East Asia education systems, especially Hong Kong education systems, in terms of economic, social and educational implications. Introduction Education is one of the most important ways for everyone to success in nowadays society. We can obtain formal education from educational institute ranging from kindergartens to the university. However, not everyone who received formal education can get into their dream schools, especially for the students from the senior year of secondary education who have applied for tertiary study. For instance, the students achieved poorly in their public exams, whose scores doesn’t reach the minimum entrance requirement of universities, or the students whose academic results are not competitive towards others. Hence, many parents hire private tutors or tutoring companies to enhance their kids’ grades in public exam, “thus participating in a ‘Shadow Education’ system that supplements normal schooling” (Ireson and Rushforth, 2005). Shadow Education is defined as activities outside of school that mimic activities performed in school (Bray, 2009). For clarity, the term “Shadow Education” refers to ‘fee-paying’ private supplementary tutoring in this paper. As Southgate (2009) suggested, this type of education is like a shadow that takes the shape of formal school in curricula and purpose, and it can be conducted in many forms. For example, “it can be as informal as a senior student teaching a junior student or a teacher tutoring a student or group of students; or, it can be something more formalized and complex such as organized learning centers” (Southgate, 2009). People or organizations that offer private tutoring are known as shadow educators. These shadow educators closely follow the most updated curriculum set by the local examination board (e.g. HKEAA in Hong Kong and IB for international school) and offer academic tutoring service for a wide range of subjects such as languages, mathematics, sciences and humanities. However they do not cover extracurricular activities, for instance, sports, music, art, etc. unless they are considered parts of core curriculums in school.

Leung Cheuk Wing, Wayne Student No.: 11022209

EDS 6004: Educational Reform and Development in Global Context Lecturer: Dr. Lee Moo Sung

Actors of Shadow Education We can categorize people that use the Shadow Education service as following: 1) People who wish to do well in exam With the expansion of higher education and the increase of the wealth, getting into a decent university becomes a highly competitive issue. Most parents recognize this matter and try to help their children to gain more opportunities and possibility of entering noted universities. One common way is to find private tutors to assist their children’s academic work and to help them to excel in standardized examinations. In this dynamics society, standardized exam remains to be one of the main ways to qualify students’ performance. Therefore high scores from...
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