Water Pollution Is the Contamination of Water Bodies

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Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies (e.g. lakes, rivers, oceans and groundwater). Water pollution affects plants and organisms living in these bodies of water; and, in almost all cases the effect is damaging not only to individual species and populations, but also to the natural biological communities. Water pollution occurs when pollutants are discharged directly or indirectly into water bodies without adequate treatment to remove harmful compounds. Contents

1 Introduction
2 Water pollution categories
o2.1 Point source pollution
o2.2 Non–point source pollution
3 Groundwater pollution
4 Causes of water pollution
o4.1 Pathogens
o4.2 Chemical and other contaminants
o4.3 Thermal pollution
5 Transport and chemical reactions of water pollutants
6 Measurement of water pollution
o6.1 Sampling
o6.2 Physical testing
o6.3 Chemical testing
o6.4 Biological testing
7 Control of water pollution
o7.1 Domestic sewage
o7.2 Industrial wastewater
o7.3 Agricultural wastewater
o7.4 Construction site stormwater
o7.5 Urban runoff (stormwater)
8 See also
9 References
10 External links

[edit] Introduction

Millions depend on the polluted Ganges river.
Water pollution is a major problem in the global context. It has been suggested that it is the leading worldwide cause of deaths and diseases,[1][2] and that it accounts for the deaths of more than 14,000 people daily.[2] An estimated 700 million Indians have no access to a proper toilet, and 1,000 Indian children die of diarrheal sickness every day.[3] Some 90% of China's cities suffer from some degree of water pollution,[4] and nearly 500 million people lack access to safe drinking water.[5] In addition to the acute problems of water pollution in developing countries, industrialized countries continue to struggle with pollution problems as well. In the most recent national report on water quality in the United States, 45 percent of assessed stream miles, 47 percent of assessed lake acres, and 32 percent of assessed bay and estuarine square miles were classified as polluted.[6] Water is typically referred to as polluted when it is impaired by anthropogenic contaminants and either does not support a human use, like serving as drinking water, and/or undergoes a marked shift in its ability to support its constituent biotic communities, such as fish. Natural phenomena such as volcanoes, algae blooms, storms, and earthquakes also cause major changes in water quality and the ecological status of water. [edit] Water pollution categories

Surface water and groundwater have often been studied and managed as separate resources, although they are interrelated.[7] Sources of surface water pollution are generally grouped into two categories based on their origin. [edit] Point source pollution

Point source pollution - Shipyard - Rio de Janeiro.
Point source pollution refers to contaminants that enter a waterway through a discrete conveyance, such as a pipe or ditch. Examples of sources in this category include discharges from a sewage treatment plant, a factory, or a city storm drain. The U.S. Clean Water Act (CWA) defines point source for regulatory enforcement purposes.[8] The CWA definition of point source was amended in 1987 to include municipal storm sewer systems, as well as industrial stormwater, such as from construction sites.[9] [edit] Non–point source pollution

Non–point source (NPS) pollution refers to diffuse contamination that does not originate from a single discrete source. NPS pollution is often the cumulative effect of small amounts of contaminants gathered from a large area. The leaching out of nitrogen compounds from agricultural land which has been fertilized is a typical example. Nutrient runoff in stormwater from "sheet flow" over an agricultural field or a forest are also cited as examples of NPS pollution. Contaminated storm water washed off of parking lots, roads and highways, called...
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