Water Pollution in Pakistan

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A Special Report

Pakistan’s Waters at Risk
Water & Health Related Issues in Pakistan & Key Recommendations

Based on Information/Data drawn from Government Documents and NGOs / IGOs Publications

February 2007
Endorsed by

Report compiled by: Freshwater & Toxics Programme, WWF – Pakistan. Cover page design: Communications Division, WWF – Pakistan. Published 2007 by WWF – Pakistan, Ferozepur Road, Lahore – 54600, Pakistan. Opinions expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of WWF and its members. Cover photo credits: Freshwater & Toxics Programme, WWF – Pakistan

WATER & HEALTH RELATED ISSUES IN PAKISTAN A SPECIAL REPORT

Table of Contents

Page EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1. 2. INTRODUCTION & BACKGROUND CURRENT SITUATION / ISSUES OF WATER IN PAKISTAN 2.1 WATER AVAILABILITY 2.2 WATER DEMAND/CONSUMPTION 2.3 WATER QUALITY MAJOR WATER SECTORS IN PAKISTAN 3.1 INDUSTRIAL SECTOR 3.2 AGRICULTURE SECTOR 3.3 MUNICIPAL SECTOR WATER QUALITY & HEALTH IMPACTS 4.1 WATER-BORNE DISEASES 4.2 PREVALANCE OF ARSENIC AND FLOURIDE IN DRINKING WATER 4.3 IMPLICATIONS OF HEALTH IMPACTS POLICY AND REGULATORY FRAMEWORK & ITS IMPLEMENTATION STATUS 5.1 NATIONAL DRINKING WATER POLICY (DRAFT) 5.2 NATIONAL WATER POLICY (DRAFT) 5.3 NATIONAL ENVIRONMENT POLICY 2005 5.4 PAKISTAN ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ACT (PEPA) 1997 5.5 PAKISTAN STANDARDS & QUALITY CONTROL AUTHORITY (PSQCA) 5.6 MID-TERM DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK 2005 – 2010 EXISTING MANAGEMENT PRACTICES TO COMBAT WATER POLLUTION 6.1 ENFORCEMENT STATUS CONCLUSIONS, POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS AND THE WAY FORWARD REFERENCES 1 1 1 3 3 5 5 7 7 8 8 10 11 11 13 14 14 15 16 16 16 18 20

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ABBREVIATIONS

ADB BOD CDA CDWA CDWI CETPs COD CRCP DALYs DHHS EIA EPA FAO FPCCI GDP GoP HWHF IEEM KITE KWSB MAF MGD MSTQ MTDF NDWP NEP NEQS NGO NIH NWFP NWC NWP OICCI PCRWR PEPA

Asian Development Bank Biological Oxygen Demand Capital Development Authority Clean Drinking Water for All Clean Drinking Water Initiative Common Effluent Treatment Plants Chemical Oxygen Demand Consumer Rights Commission of Pakistan Disability Adjusted Life Years Department of Health and Human Services Environmental Impact Assessment Environmental Protection Agency Food and Agriculture Organization Federation of Pakistan Chamber of Commerce and Industry Gross Domestic Production Government of Pakistan Hazardous Waste Handling Facilities Industrial Efficiency and Environmental Management Korangi Industrial and Trading Estate Karachi Water and Sewerage Board Million Acre Feet Million Gallons per Day Meteorology Standards Testing and Quality Mid Term Development Framework National Drinking Water Policy National Environment Policy National Environmental Quality Standards Non Governmental Organization National Institute of Health North West Frontier Province National Water Council National Water Policy Overseas Investment Chamber of Commerce and Industry Pakistan Council for Research in Water Resources Pakistan Environmental Protection Act

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PPB PRS PSQCA PWRC RSC SAR SCEA SITE SMART SOE TDS TP UNDP UNICEF USAID US EPA WAPDA WASA WB

Parts Per Billion Poverty Reduction Strategy Pakistan Standards and Quality Control Authority Provincial Water Regulatory Commission Residual Sodium Carbonate Sodium Absorption Ratio Strategic Country Environmental Assessment Report Sindh Industrial Trading Estate Self Monitoring And Reporting Tool State of the Environment Report (Draft) 2005 Total Dissolved Solids Treatment Plant United Nations Development Programme United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund United States Aid United States Environmental Protection Agency Water And Power Development Authority Water And Sanitation Agency World Bank

WB-CWRAS World Bank, Country Water Resources Assistance Strategy WHO WSS World Health Organization Water Supply and Sanitation

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WATER & HEALTH RELATED ISSUES IN PAKISTAN A SPECIAL REPORT

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Water is an essential element...
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