An Investigation on the Feasibility of Different Techniques for Providing Fresh Water to Arid Regions in the World.

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An investigation on the feasibility of different techniques for providing fresh water to arid regions in the world.

Located in a semi-arid zone, South Africa is one of the thirty driest countries in the world with limited water resources, which are unevenly distributed. In this country, five million people of the population have no access to safe drinking water and nearly fifteen million lack basic sanitation. The lack of drinking water is a serious problem, since there are more than 1.6 million children under five years whom die every year worldwide.(the water project 2012). This report will assess the feasibility of different techniques for providing drinkable water to South Africa. It will also present different options suitable for arid regions, looking to improve their water resources comparing them, and then concluding by pointing out which is the most feasible and efficient technique. BACKGROUND

From apartheid to epidemics such as aids or tuberculosis, South Africa has experienced several disasters. Now it has to face a new crisis: an abundance of drinkable water. In fact there is several reasons to explain this water crisis. Firstly, the climate change has affected the water supply as rain has become increasingly scarce. For instance “in Durban the dams are 20 per cent lower than at the start of 2010”. (the water projet) Moreover, the problem of pollution rages; in fact, mining plants in South Africa throw all their toxic and radioactive waste in African rivers. They dump highly toxic substances such as mercury, arsenic and uranium in the river, as it is toxic and reacts violently with water, once in it the water will be contaminated. The water will therefore have a highly acidic pH of 2.2 (pH level close to that of a lemon). For instance, Wonderfontein Spruit River, one of the largest rivers in South Africa is extremely polluted due to the 50 tons of uranium mining plants have dumped into the river. Likewise, Lake Robinson, a fishing...