Water and Forests

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  • Topic: Water, Sewage, Drainage system
  • Pages : 21 (7186 words )
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  • Published : May 15, 2013
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FOREST
A forest, also referred to as a wood or the woods, is an area with a high density of trees. As with cities, depending on various cultural definitions, what is considered a forest may vary significantly in size and have different classifications according to how and of what the forest is compose. These plant communities cover approximately 9.4 percent of the Earth's surface (or 30 percent of total land area), though they once covered much more (about 50 percent of total land area), in many different regions and function as habitats for organisms, hydrologic flow modulators, and soil conservers, constituting one of the most important aspects of the biosphere. Although forests are classified primarily by trees, the concept of a forest ecosystem includes additional species (such as smaller plants, fungi,[2] bacteria, and animals) as well as physical and chemical processes such as energy flow and nutrient cycling. A typical forest is composed of the overstory (canopy or upper tree layer) and the understory. The understory is further subdivided into the shrub layer, herb layer, and also the moss layer and soil microbes. In some complex forests, there is also a well-defined lower tree layer. Forests are central to all human life because they provide a diverse range of resources: they store carbon, aid in regulating the planetary climate, purify water and mitigate natural hazards such as floods. Forests also contain roughly 90 percent of the world's terrestrial biodiversity.[3] --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Importance of Forests

Forests are very useful in the life of man. They help us in many ways. They provide us shade and keep the place cool. Without forests most of the areas would have been deserts. 1. Forests purify the air. The trees break up carbon dioxide into carbon and oxygen in the presence of sun light. They consume carbon as their food and release oxygen in the atmosphere. Thus the trees are helpful in keeping the air clean. 2. Forests provide us fuel and timber. In many parts of India wood is used as fuel for cooking food and for many other purposes. Timber is used for making houses, furniture and railway coaches. 3. Hundreds of industries depend on forests, for example, paper industry, plywood industry, paint, varnish, rubber goods, match sticks and many other industries. 4. Forests cause rains. Trees cool down the winds which have water vapor. -Thus the forests help in causing rainfall. Forest areas have more rainfall than the other areas. 5. Forests prevent floods. The roots of the trees soak a lot of rain water. The rain water does not flow down quickly and cause floods. 6. Forests prevent soil erosion. The roots of the trees in the forest areas hold the soil firmly. They do not allow the rain water to wash it away easily. Thus the trees help to prevent soil erosion, 7. Forests keep up the natural balance. The trees keep up the balance between the plant and the animal life. The forests preserve wild animals like lions, tigers and panthers. These animals depend for their food on animals like deer, antilopes, stags and other animals. In turn these animals live on plants. Similarly some birds feed on smaller birds who live on insects and plants. Thus the forests keep up a balance in nature. No plant or animal goes out of existence and no plant or animal overgrows in number than it is required by the nature. 8. Herbs and some parts of certain trees are used for making medicines. Cincona and Neem are some of such trees. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- TYPES OF FOREST

1. Evergreen Tropical forests
2. Deciduous Forests
3. Thorny Forests or Desert Forests
4. Coniferous Forests
5. Mangrove Forests
1. Evergreen Tropical Forests :
The trees which remain in leaf throughout the year are called evergreen trees. These trees do not...
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