1.External Marketing : "Setting the Promise"
· Marketing to END-USERS.
· Involves pricing strategy, promotional activities, and all communication with customers.
· Performed to capture the attention of the market, and arouse interest in the service. Ex = Four Seasons Hotels and Resorts start by hiring the right people and carefully orienting and inspiring them to give unparalleled customer service.
Internal Marketing : "Enabling the Promise"
· Marketing to EMPLOYEES.
· Involves training, motivational, and teamwork programs, and all communication with employees.
· Performed to enable employees to perform the service effectively, and keep up the promise made to the customer.
Ex = Four Seasons select only people with passion to serve and instruct them carefully in interaction to customers and satisfy them.
Interactive Marketing : (Moment of Truth, Service Encounter) · This refers to the decisive moment of interaction between the front-office employees and customers, i.e. delivery of service.
· This step is of utmost importance, because if the employee falters at this level, all prior efforts made towards establishing a relationship with the customer, would be wasted. Ex = Four Seasons create or design the hotel room that attract many customers 2. Intangibility
Services are said to be intangible. They cannot be seen or tasted. It is often difficult for customer to measure service value , therefore , customers tend to look for evidence of quality and other aspect.
Services are produced and consumed at the same time, unlike good that may be manufactured, then stored for later distribution. This mean the service provider becomes an integral part of the service it self. For Example : Waiters in the restaurant , cashier in the bank.
Service variability is determined by the particular entity or circumstances surrounding the service. It only exist once and unique. This can give rise to concern about service quality and uniformity issues.
Services and perish , they can’t be stored and can’t be stocked for later time. For Example is like empty seat in the plane , is the lost opportunity forever.
3. Private Brand/Store Brand is A brand created and owned by a reseller of a product or service Ex : Madame Vershe
• Manufacturer Brand/ National Brand is Common practice where a manufacturer markets a good under its own brands name(s). The objective is to attract and retain satisfied-customers whose loyalty may be transferred to the manufacturer’s other products Ex : LG
4. Line Extension : Extending brand name to new forms, colors, sizes, ingredients, or flavors of an existing product category
Brand Extension : Extending an existing brand name to new product categories
MultiBrands : Companies market many different brands in a given product category New Brands : Companies create a new brand name when it enters a new product category
Introduction Stage :
* Slow sales growth
* Little or no profit
* High distribution and promotion expense
* Usually few competitors
Marketing Mix : Introduction Stage
* Product: offer basic product or undifferentiated product * Price: low penetration pricing or high skim pricing
* Place: distribution is selective
* Promotion: aimed to innovators and early adopters; to build customer awareness and education Growth Stage :
* Sales increase
* New competitors enter the market
* Profits increase
Marketing Mix Strategies : Growth Stage
* Product: quality is maintained or improved; offer additional features and services * Price: remain or decrease only slightly
* Place: distribution channel are added
* Promotion: aimed at a broader audience; increase ads to build brand preference Maturity Stage
* Slowdown in sales and profit
* Overcapacity leads to competition
* Increased promotion and R&D to...