Date:17 February 2012
Submitted in partial fulfilment of the Master of Commerce Degree in Strategic Management and Corporate Governance Part 1.1 Introduction
Organizations are composed of individuals and each individual is different from the other. And also the behavior and performance of each individual is influenced by several different factors. Every individual has Particular motives, ambitions, perceptions, and abilities. To understand the human behavior in organization in a better way, a careful study of all the factors which affect the human behavior is must. Individual behavior is the way in which one person acts apart from another person or group. Individual behavior can be different than anyone else and is personalize by that person. This behavior is influenced by his attitude, personality, perception, learning and motivating. Theories of human behavior have been developed and explained below are some of them, 1. Respondent Learning
This theory was formulated by a Russian psychologist called Ivan Pavlov. It is known as classical conditioning and is based on a stimuli-response formula. 2. Operant Conditioning
This theory is based on the work of B. F. Skinner, who drew on the idea of Classical conditioning, but thought individuals to be more active in the learning process than that theory allowed. For learning to occur, it is essential that the person be an Active participant. In this theory, when learning is rewarded, behavior is perpetuated or maintained, while punished behavior is removed. 3. Social Cognitive Theory / Social Modeling:
This is based on the work of Albert Bandura (1978), who thinks that most learning is a result of copying or imitating what others do, i.e. vicarious learning. The social modeling theory emphasizes the importance of external reinforces, and allows learning to occur independently of reinforcement.
There are also some factors that influence individual performance at the workplace. The amazing feature of humans is their diversity. What is work for one person is pleasure for another (gardening for example) what motivates one worker will demotivate another. Being effective at work as an individual is related to how the personal qualities and characteristics of the individual interact with the requirements of the work environment. Understanding oneself as well as the others can greatly add to personal effectiveness and the effectiveness of others. The individual performance equation proposed by Wood et al. (2001, P.91) captures the ideas that Job Performance = Individual Attributes X Work Effort (Motivation) X Organizational Support This equation views performance as a result of the personal attributes of an individuals, the work effort they make and the organizational support they receive. The multiplication sign indicates that all three factors must be present for high performance to be archived.
Demographic or Biographic Factors
The demographic factors are socio economic background, education, nationality, race, age, sex, etc. Sex affect performance in the sense that most female managers feel their subordinates are undermining their authority and tend to be more virtuous and want to be felt that they are in charge, and with new young managers emerging, some people found themselves being managed by a person young enough to be their child, and they feel they should be respected just as they do at home and expect the same at work. Organizations prefer persons that belong to good socio-economic background, well educated, young etc. as they are believed to be performing better than the others. The young and dynamic professionals that have good academic background and effective communication skills are always in great demand.
Abilities and Skills or...