Using Grounded Theory Methodology and Rich Picture Diagrams in analysing Value Creation in Houses of Culture Projects in Sweden Laurell Stenlund, K. Kristina.Laurell-Stenlund@ltu.se Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden
What kind of value does a public building for cultural activities create for clients, construction professionals and users? One approach to understand the complexity of ongoing processes over time is by identifying value-adding activities in building processes. However, value added activities are difficult to analyse especially when related to resources that have an immaterial character, e.g. knowledge, know how and social relations. Based on an indepth case study of stakeholders’ evaluation of a construction project, grounded theory methodology (GTM) and rich picture diagrams (RPD) were used in analysing stakeholder and end-user value. Data was collected by semi-structured interviews with actors, public client, project manager, architect, contractor, employee and visitors of the building and during a workshop with representatives for different stakeholder groups. The results from the analysis show that building a house of culture creates stakeholders’ and end-users’ value that can be categorised into human, organisational and social capital. The strength of combining GTM and RPD is demonstrated in its ability to study complex organisational structures and relations between different actors, and specific as shown in this case, when analysing value creation in a construction project with many stakeholders with different interests and value.
Keywords: case study, grounded theory method, intellectual capital, rich picture diagrams
Discussions during the last few years (e.g. Egan 1998; Finch 2000; Spencer and Winch 2002; Saxon 2005) have shown that integrating design and construction potentially delivers better value for money as well as better buildings, particularly when attention is paid to the full costs of a building over its whole lifetime. Research on how buildings deliver better value for money during their lifetime involves complex data analysis of activities and processes. Value-adding activities consist of complex building processes performed over time. A condition for activities to be value-added is that they are supported by resources that are utilised and developed in a positive way (Laurell Stenlund and Hörte, 1999). According to the resource-based view, the resources that are difficult to imitate and replace create a competitive advantage to companies (e.g. Penrose, 1959; Grant, 1991; Hamel and Prahalad, 1994). The characteristics of these resources are described as dynamic organisational capabilities (Dosi et al., 2008). However, value-added activities are more difficult to analyse. Resources that are immaterial, e.g. knowledge, know-how and social relations (e.g. Sveiby, 1997; Edvinsson and Malone, 1997) are difficult to 17
The Built & Human Environment Review, Volume 3, Special Issue 1, 2010
describe and measure. Sutrisna and Barrett (2007) argue that rich picture diagrams are tools suitable for analysing complex building processes. The purpose with this paper is to describe how grounded theory method (GTM) and rich picture diagrams (RPD) were used in analysing stakeholder and end-user value when developing and constructing houses of culture. Empirical evidence is developed from a single in-depth case study where data was collected by interviews, archives, documents and during a workshop. In the next section GTM and RPD methods are discussed in relation to the case study. The results from the analyses are finally presented and concluded.
Theories and General Conclusions from Case Studies
A researcher’s choice of methodology is not only a matter of strategy. Researchers argue that their “Weltanschauung” (ontology, i.e. our view on how the world is constructed) and opinion...