U. S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES • Public Health Service • Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration
Urine Testing for Drugs of Abuse
Editors: Richard L. Hawks, Ph.D. C. Nora Chiang, Ph.D.
Division of Preclinical Research National Institute on Drug Abuse
NIDA Research Monograph 73 1986
DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Public Health Service Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration National Institute on Drug Abuse 5600 Fishers Lane Rockville, Maryland
NIDA Research Monographs are prepared by the research divisions of the National lnstitute on Drug Abuse and published by its Office of Science. The primary objective of the series is to provide critical reviews of research problem areas and techniques, the content of state-of-the-art conferences, and integrative research reviews. Its dual publication emphasis is rapid and targeted dissemination to the scientific and professional community.
MARTIN W. ADLER, Ph. D.
Temple University of Medicine Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
SIDNEY COHEN, M.D.
Los Angeles, California
SYDNEY ARCHER, Ph.D.
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Troy, New York
MARY L. JACOBSON
National Federation of Parents for Drug Free Youth Omaha, Nebraska
RICHARD E. BELLEVILLE, Ph.D.
NB Associates, Health Sciences Rockville, Maryland
REESE T. JONES, M.D.
Langley Porter Neuropsychiatric Institute San Francisco, California
KARST J. BESTEMAN
Alcohol and Drug Problems Association of North America Washington, D.C.
GILBERT J. BOTVIN, Ph.D.
Cornell University Medical College New York, New York
DENISE KANDEL, Ph.D
College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University New York, New York
JOSEPH V. BRADY, Ph. D.
The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine Baltimore, Maryland
HERBERT KLEBER, M.D.
Yale University School of Medicine New Haven, Connecticut
THEODORE J. FCICERO, Ph. D.
Washington University School of Medicine St. Louis, Missouri
New Jersey State Department of Health Trenton, New Jersey
NIDA Research Monograph Series
CHARLES R. SCHUSTER, Ph.D.
JEAN PAUL SMITH, Ph.D.
Acting Associate Director for Science, NIDA Acting Editor
Parklawn Building, 5600 Fishers Lane, Rockville, Maryland 20857
Urine Testing for Drugs of Abuse
ACKNOWLEDGMENT This monograph is the result of a collaborative effort by the scientists noted as chapter authors, all of whom made extensive contributions to the various chapters in this monograph in addition to the ones for which they were the principal author. In addition, several other individuals in the scientific community reviewed the manuscript in preparation and made valuable contributions to the final text. These reviewers include Rodger and Ruth Foltz, Center for Human Toxicology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City; Bryan Finkle, Genentech Corporation, South San Francisco; Arthur McBay, Office of the Chief Medical Examiner, University of North Carolina; and Michael Peat, ChemWest Analytical I.aboratory, Sacramento. COPYRIGHT STATUS The National Institute on Drug Abuse has obtained permission from the copyright holders to reproduce certain previously published material as noted in the text. Further reproduction of this copyrighted material is permitted only as part of a reprinting of the entire publication or chapter. For any other use, the copyright holder’s permission is required. All other material in this volume except quoted passages from copyrighted sources is in the public domain and may be used or reproduced without permission from the Institute or the authors. Citation of the source is appreciated.
Opinions expressed in this volume are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the opinions or official policy of the National Institute on Drug Abuse or any other part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
The U.S. Government does not...