Urban Metabolism of London

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Introduction to London
Greater London, located in the south-east of England, is the top administrative subdivision covering London, England [1]. It has been covering the City of London and all 32 boroughs since 1965 which was when the administrative area was officially created [1]. It is the largest and most populated city in the European Union with an area of 1,579 km² and a population of 7,512,400 (mid 2006) [2][3][4]. For the remainder of this document, Greater London will be referred to as London. London is internationally recognized as a center of business, finance, media, entertainment and fashion. It has also had a global influence in politics, education, and art [2][3]. The city is a tourist destination for both domestic and overseas visitors. London’s history goes back to its founding by the Romans roughly two thousand years ago [5]. It is now home to people of many different religions and ethnicities from all over the world, making it one of the world’s most multicultural cities. London’s climate is moderate in the sense that is rarely sees extreme low or high temperatures. Summers have average temperatures of around 14 - 25 °C. London winters are cold but rarely dip below freezing with temperatures around 2 - 8 °C [6]. London experiences light precipitation throughout the year with an average of 583.6 mm/year [6]. Snow is uncommon and is only seen up to few times a year due to the heat generated from the urban area which can make London up to 5 °C warmer than the surrounding areas [6]. London’s temperate weather is beneficial in a metabolic sense since not much energy is wasted on cold and hot air conditioning in residential and public indoor areas. London’s growth in the 18th century led to rising traffic congestion which eventually resulted in the creation of the world’s first metro system [6]. In the present day, over 70% of London residents arrive into the city by public transport [7]. The integration of this mass transport system has a...
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