All outcomes in red are observations to be carried out by assessor. The information given indicates the types of things assessor will be looking for
Anatomy and Physiology of a human body in relation to the importance of correct moving and positioning of individuals
Body joints are where two bones meet. Joints help enable our bodies to move.
Types of joints
* Ball and socket joints: are the most mobile type of joint in body
* Joints between the vertebrae in spine: are connected to each other by pads of cartilage. These joints can only move a small amount.
* Synovial joints: are movable joints containing synovial; a lubricating fluid. Synovial joints are in the limbs where mobility is important. Ligaments provide stability and muscles contract to produce movement. Common synovial joints are:
* Gliding joints are between two flat bones held together by ligaments, some of these bones in wrists and ankles move by gliding against each other. * Pivot joint in the neck help the head to turn from side to side. * Saddle joints are in thumbs and their bones can rock back and forth and from side to side but have limited rotation. * Ball and socket joints like hip and shoulder are mobile joint in the human body allowing arms and legs to swing. * Hinge joints are in knees and elbows enabling movement similar to the opening and closing of a hinged door. * Ellipsoidal joints are at the base of index finger bending, extending and rocking but rotation is limited.
Ligaments Cartilage: Bones are attached to other bones by long fibre known as ligaments cartilage which is a flexible, rubbery substance supporting and protecting bones.
Human body has more than 650 muscles, that typically make up half of a normal person's body weight, connected to the bones by tough, cord-like tissues called tendons, which allow the muscles to pull on bones. If we wiggle our fingers, we can see the tendons on the back of our hand move.
Muscles are grouped in pairs on skeleton because they only pull in one direction. When one muscle in a pair relaxes, the other contracts and pulls in the opposite direction to straighten the joint otherwise we couldn't straighten our legs or bend our fingers. Likewise, when biceps muscle in upper arm contracts, it pulls in the lower arm towards shoulder and when it relaxes, biceps cannot push the arm back. Triceps muscle contracts and straightens the arm out else the arm would stay drawn.
Moving and positioning an individual correctly and to understand the movement and limitations of the joints and muscles is very critical. Pulling, over extending or forcing a joint in the wrong direction or with excessive force can cause serious damage to the muscle, joint, limb and hurt or harm the individual. Risk assessment of moving method has to be in place and the best way must be identified.
Impact of specific conditions on movement and positioning
A stroke victim (i.e. a cerebrovascular event) can have Ataxia that causes a severe lack of coordination and muscle movement, weakness in a limb or on any side of the body. A physiotherapist may help with strengthening the areas affected by the stroke and if the individual’s mobility is affected, moving and handling procedures need to be planned and agreed with them.
Movement of a stroke victim can be slow and frustrating and hence it is important to position them correctly to maintain muscle length, soft tissue and joint flexibility and prevent contracture, a permanent shortening of a muscle or joint. Positioning is important for proper recovery and to decrease the risk of pain or other problems.
An individual may have muscle weakness caused by osteoarthritis due to lack of exercise with additional pain and stiffness after hip joint replacement surgery. A Physiotherapist can devise a rehabilitation...