WHAT SHOULD I KNOW ABOUT…
DNA STRUCTURE, DNA REPLICATION, Tx, Tl, MUTATIONS, CELL CYCLE, MITOSIS, MEIOSIS, MENDELIAN GENETICS
Review/Use the following:
Vocab lists, ISN Pages, Practice Questions, Lectures, Book Chapters 12, 9, 10
1. What role did Rosalyn Franklin play in our understanding of DNA’s structure? She discovered the double-helix position of the DNA. 2. What role did James Watson & Francis Crick play in our understanding of DNA’s structure? They discovered the 3D structure. 3. What type of macromolecular is DNA? Nucleic acid
4. What are the monomers of DNA? Nucleotides
5. What is the structure of a nucleotide? Draw It. A nucleotide consists of a phosphate molecule, a deoxyribose sugar, and a base (adenine, cytosine, gaunine, and thymine). 6. Which nucleotides are used to build DNA? Adenine, cytocine, guanine, thymine. 7. Which are used to build RNA? Adenine, uracil, cytocine, guanine. 8. What is a purine? How many rings do purines have? Purines are natural substances found in all of the body's cells, and in virtually all foods. 9. What is a pyrimidine? How many rings do pyrimidines have? 2 rings. 10. How is DNA different from RNA (strands, sugars, base pairs, location)? RNA is a nucleic acid polymer consisting of nucleotide monomers.RNA nucleotides contain ribose rings and uracil unlike DNA which contains deoxyribose and thymine. 11. What is the structure of a DNA molecule?
a. What forms the backbone of the DNA molecule? Sugar rings and phosphates b. What kind of bonds occur between the 3' OH of one nucleotide and the phosphate of the next? Glycosidic bond b. What forms the “steps of the ladder”? Guanine, Adenine, Cytosine, and Thymine. c. What kind of bonds hold the nitrogen bases together? Hydrogen d. What is meant by anti-parallel strands? The 5' to 3' direction of one strand runs counter to the 5' to 3' direction of the other strand. 12. What is Chargaff’s rule (what binds with what)? Chargaff's rule states for every Adenine there's a thymine and for every cytosine there' a guanine 13. How does DNA fold into a chromosome? The essential unit of DNA packaging is the nucleosome. A nucleosome consists of a small amount of DNA wrapped up with protein. The proteins that interact with DNA to form chromatin comprise a family of basic (positively charged) proteins called histones. 14. What is a nucleosome? A structural unit of a eukaryotic chromosome, consisting of a length of DNA coiled around a core of histones. 15. What are histones? Any of a group of basic proteins found in chromatin. 16. What is the difference between chromatin and chromosomes? A chromosome is a strand of DNA with proteins, that is usually found within the cell's nucleus. On the other hand, chromatin is a mass of genetic material containing DNA, RNA, and various proteins that forms chromosomes. When do cells use these different forms?
REPLICATION, TRANSCRIPTION, and TRANSLATION
1. What is the difference between REPLICATION, TRANSCRIPTION, and TRANSLATION? DNA replication is when the DNA double helix unwinds itself and makes copies of itself. Transcription is the production or synthesis of RNA encoded by DNA. In translation, proteins are made by reading the sequence information after the mature and processed mRNA by a ribosome. Where does each process take place in the cell? In the chloroplast 2. Define semi-conservative replication. Semiconservative replication describes the method by which DNA is replicated in all known cells. 3. How is DNA made? From what end to what end? 3’ to 5’. 4. What is the job of these enzymes: DNA polymerase? Helicase? Ligase? Helicase unwinds the twisted double-ladder formation of the DNA. Polymerase comes to the assistance of each leg of the fork, or each strand. Ligase joins the fragments after the DNA polymerase completes it proofreading. 5. What are the 3 kinds of RNA? What roles do each play in...