E1-Describe the development of children in a selected age range and in two areas of development E2- Describe the development of children in a selected age range, different from E1 and in two areas of development
| Social & Emotional Development
| Intellectual Development
| Example of what you may see
| Example of what you may see
| 0-1 years
| Enjoy songs and action rhymes.
| Will appear to respond positively to songs and do the actions.
| Take an interesting interest in their surroundings.
| Will want to touch or look at everything around them.
| 1-2 years
| Are eager to be independent.
| Will want to do things for themselves for example dressing themselves.
| Use trial-and-error methods to learn about objects.
| If they touch an object and it is hot, they won’t touch it again.
| 2-3 years
| May got to the toilet independently.
| May go to the toilet when they need it with few accidents.
| Know their full name.
| Will be able to say their full name.
| 3-4 years
| Make friends and are interested in having friends.
| Will enjoy being with other children more.
| Can sort objects into simple categories.
| Will put all the red objects together and all the blue objects together.
| 4-5 years
| Can eat skilfully with a spoon and a fork.
| Will be able to hold and use their spoon and fork well.
| Tell long stories, often confusing fact and fantasy.
| Are more imaginative but may mix up what’s real and what’s made up.
| 5-6 years
| Enjoy caring for pets.
| Will take an interest in wanted to look after pets.
| Are interested in reading and writing.
| Will seem interested to read and write more.
| 6-7 years
| May be able to speak up for themselves
| When visiting the dentist or doctor, they may talk more for themselves.
| Are able to conserve number
| They know there are 10 sweets whether they are pushed closed together or spread apart
E3-Explain two theoretical perspectives relevant to the areas of development One theoretical perspective about how children learn is Constructivist theory, the ideas of this theory are firstly Piaget’s theory, he was interested in the reasons why children got questions wrong the required logically thinking and he was the first psychologist to study cognitive development. Piagets theory has different stages of development and different ideas for each age range; the sensori-motor stage is from birth to 2 years, this stage is of rapid cognitive growth and believes infants lean from trial and error, the pre-operational stage ranges from age 2-7 years where they mentally represent events and objects and thoughts and communications are typically about themselves, it also believes they display ‘anism’ which is belief that inanimate objects such as teddy bears and toys have human feeling, they also assume that everyone sees, hears and feels things the same way as they do. The next stage of development is concrete operation stage which is age 7-11; this believes the chid is now mature enough to use logical thought operation and gains ability of conservation (number area and volume) and reversibility. The last stage of development is the formal operational stage which begins at around age 11 and states they have the ability to combine and classify items in a more sophisticated way and they gain the ability to think in a more abstract manner. Another aspect of Constructivist theory is ‘schema’s’ which means a child’s conclusions or thoughts and that they develop and adapt due to their experiences. One other aspect is assimilation which has three points to it, accommodation – changing to deal with a new situation and getting used to it, equilibrium- doing something that we already can do and disequilibrium- getting a new situation and changing what you already know. Another theoretical perspective is Behaviourist theory which states that children learn either by association or consequence. We link this to practice by guiding the behaviour of the children by...
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