Unit 2 – Development from conception to age 16 years.
E1. Describe the development of children in a selected age range and in two areas of development. Stages of physical development
The First Month
From age’s birth to three years, the child should be able to lie supine, lie with head turned to one side, and by one month can lift the head. If pulled to sitting position, the head will lag, the back curves over and the head falls forward. Also the child should be able to turn his or her head towards the light and stares at bright or shiny objects, fascinated by human faces and gazes attentively at carer’s face when fed or held, hands are usually tightly closed and reacts to loud sounds but by one month may be soothes by particular music (Meggit, C et al 2012:32). From four to eight weeks
From ages four to eight weeks, the child should be able to turn from side to back, lift the head briefly from the prone position, arm and leg movements are jerky and uncontrolled and there is head lag if the baby is pulled to sitting position. Also the child should be able to turn their head towards the light and stares at bright or shiny objects, show interest and excitement by facial expression and will gaze attentively at carer’s face while being fed, and use his or her hand to grasp the carer’s finger (Meggit, C et al 2012:32). From eight to twelve weeks
From ages eight to twelve weeks, the child should be able to keep head in central position, lift head and chest off bed in prone position, supported forearms, there is almost no head lag in sitting position and the legs can kick vigorously, both separately. Also moves his or her head to follow adult movements, watches their hands and plays with their fingers and holds a rattle for a brief time before dropping (Meggit, C et al 2012:32). From four to six months
From ages four to six months, the child should be able to use a palmar grasp and can transfer objects from hand to hand, very interested in all activity, everything is taken to the mouth and moves their head around to follow people and objects. Also, the child should be able to have good head control and is beginning to sit, rolls over from back to side and is beginning to reach for objects; the baby plays with their own feet and holds their head up when pulled to sitting position (Meggit, C et al 2012:32). From six to nine months
From ages six to nine months the child should be able to roll from front to back, attempt to crawl but will often end up sliding backwards, grasp feet and place them in their mouth, sit without support for longer periods of time and may ‘cruise’ around furniture and may even stand or walk alone. Also, the child should be able to be very alert to people and objects, beginning to use a pincer grasp with thumb and index finger, transfers toys from one hand to the other and looks for fallen objects and everything is explored by putting it in their mouth (Meggit, C et al 2012:32). From nine to twelve months
From the ages nine to twelve months, the child should be able to be mobile – crawling, bear-walking, bottom shuffling or even walking, sit up on their own and lean forward to pick up things, crawl upstairs and onto low items of furniture and bounce in rhythm to music. Also the child should be able to pick things up and pull them towards them, poke with one finger and will point to desired objects, clasp hands and imitate adults’ actions, throw toys deliberately and to manage spoons and finger foods well (Meggit, C et al 2012:32). From fifteen months
From the age fifteen months, the child should be able to walk alone, with feet wide apart and arms rise to maintain balance, manage stairs or steps, with supervision and get to standing without help from furniture or people. Also the child should be able to build with a few bricks and arrange toys on the floor, hold a crayon in palmar grasp and turns several pages of book at once, point to desired objects and shows a preference for one hand, but uses...
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