Unemployment in Pakistan

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BASIC MIMAP Poverty Profile of Pakistan

G. M. Arif

Hina Nazli

Rashida Haq

Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, Islamabad

September 2000

Table of Contents

1. Introduction
2. Demography
3. Income and Expenditure
1 Real annual per capita expenditure
2 Trends in money metric poverty
3 Income distribution
4 Sources of household income
5 Distribution of household expenditures
4. Employment
1 Labour force participation
2 Unemployment and underemployment
3 Sectoral distribution
4 Real Wages
5 Dependency ratio

5. Nutrition
5. Education
1 Adult literacy rate
2 Primary school gross enrolment rates
3 Secondary school gross enrolment rates
4 Primary school drop-out rates
5 Continuation rates

7. Health
7. Water and Sanitation
8. Housing
9. Assets
10. Summary
Appendix Tables
References
Definitions and Data Sources

List of Tables

Table 1:Demography

1A: Population/household distribution, absolute number and percentages by rural/urban and province, 1981 and 1998

Table 2:Income and Expenditure

2A: Real annual per capita expenditure, money-metric indices, Gini coefficient, household expenditure and sources of household income by rural/urban and provinces, 1992-93 and 1996-97.

Table 3.Employment

3A: Sectoral distribution, labour force participation, unemployment and underemployment, average real wages and dependency ratio, 1992-93 and 1996-97

Table 4. Nutrition

4A: Calorie intake per capita (per day), height/age and weight/height by rural/urban areas and province, 1985-87 and 1998-99.

Table 5.Education
5A: Adult literacy rate, primary and secondary school gross enrolment rates, primary school drop-out and continuation rates, and access to primary school by rural/urban areas and province, 1995-96 and 1998-99.

Table 6. Health
6A: Life expectancy at birth, expectancy at birth, mortality rate by causes, infant mortality rate, child mortality rate, maternal mortality and access to primary health center by rural/urban areas and province, 1995-96 and 1998-99.

Table 7. Water/Sanitation
7A; Access to safe drinking water and sanitation system by rural/urban areas and province, 1995-96 and 1998-99.

Table 8. Housing

8A; Roof and floor material of houses and number of persons per room by rural/urban areas and province 1995-96 and 1998-99.

Table.9 Assets

9A: Land distribution by size and tenancy, ownership of agricultural production assets and landless household in rural areas only by province, 1980 and 1990.

Table 10. Services

10A: Access to electricity by rural/urban areas and province, 1990-91 and 1996-97.

Appendix Tables

Appendix Table 1: Distribution of population by province

Appendix Table 2: Trends in the incidence of poverty (head count ratios).

Appendix Table 3: Trends in food poverty, 1984-85 – 1998-99

Appendix Table 4: Incidence of poverty (Head-count ratios) under the basic needs approach by rural/urban area.

Appendix Table 5: Household income distribution in Pakistan.

Appendix Table 6: Net enrollment rate at primary level in Pakistan by region, province, and gender.

BASIC MIMAP POVERTY PROFILE OF PAKISTAN[1]

By

G. M. Arif, Hina Nazli and Rashida Haq[2]

1Introduction

Most of the studies undertaken during the last three decades to assess the extent and nature of poverty in Pakistan have used the calorie-intake and/or basic-needs approaches. The commonly used indicators in these studies are the head-count ratio (P0), the income gap (P1) and the income severity (P2). These indicators give a good impression of the extent of poverty, its depth and the level of inequality among the poor. However, poverty is a more multi-dimensional concept than simple income (consumption) deprivation. Any single measure of poverty never fully captures all the dimensions in which...
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