G. M. Arif
Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, Islamabad
Table of Contents
3. Income and Expenditure
1 Real annual per capita expenditure
2 Trends in money metric poverty
3 Income distribution
4 Sources of household income
5 Distribution of household expenditures
1 Labour force participation
2 Unemployment and underemployment
3 Sectoral distribution
4 Real Wages
5 Dependency ratio
1 Adult literacy rate
2 Primary school gross enrolment rates
3 Secondary school gross enrolment rates
4 Primary school drop-out rates
5 Continuation rates
7. Water and Sanitation
Definitions and Data Sources
List of Tables
1A: Population/household distribution, absolute number and percentages by rural/urban and province, 1981 and 1998
Table 2:Income and Expenditure
2A: Real annual per capita expenditure, money-metric indices, Gini coefficient, household expenditure and sources of household income by rural/urban and provinces, 1992-93 and 1996-97.
3A: Sectoral distribution, labour force participation, unemployment and underemployment, average real wages and dependency ratio, 1992-93 and 1996-97
Table 4. Nutrition
4A: Calorie intake per capita (per day), height/age and weight/height by rural/urban areas and province, 1985-87 and 1998-99.
5A: Adult literacy rate, primary and secondary school gross enrolment rates, primary school drop-out and continuation rates, and access to primary school by rural/urban areas and province, 1995-96 and 1998-99.
Table 6. Health
6A: Life expectancy at birth, expectancy at birth, mortality rate by causes, infant mortality rate, child mortality rate, maternal mortality and access to primary health center by rural/urban areas and province, 1995-96 and 1998-99.
Table 7. Water/Sanitation
7A; Access to safe drinking water and sanitation system by rural/urban areas and province, 1995-96 and 1998-99.
Table 8. Housing
8A; Roof and floor material of houses and number of persons per room by rural/urban areas and province 1995-96 and 1998-99.
9A: Land distribution by size and tenancy, ownership of agricultural production assets and landless household in rural areas only by province, 1980 and 1990.
Table 10. Services
10A: Access to electricity by rural/urban areas and province, 1990-91 and 1996-97.
Appendix Table 1: Distribution of population by province
Appendix Table 2: Trends in the incidence of poverty (head count ratios).
Appendix Table 3: Trends in food poverty, 1984-85 – 1998-99
Appendix Table 4: Incidence of poverty (Head-count ratios) under the basic needs approach by rural/urban area.
Appendix Table 5: Household income distribution in Pakistan.
Appendix Table 6: Net enrollment rate at primary level in Pakistan by region, province, and gender.
BASIC MIMAP POVERTY PROFILE OF PAKISTAN
G. M. Arif, Hina Nazli and Rashida Haq
Most of the studies undertaken during the last three decades to assess the extent and nature of poverty in Pakistan have used the calorie-intake and/or basic-needs approaches. The commonly used indicators in these studies are the head-count ratio (P0), the income gap (P1) and the income severity (P2). These indicators give a good impression of the extent of poverty, its depth and the level of inequality among the poor. However, poverty is a more multi-dimensional concept than simple income (consumption) deprivation. Any single measure of poverty never fully captures all the dimensions in which...