The Relationship of Culture and Development
The center of attention is to see the relationship between culture and development by understanding both the phenomenon’s conceptually. It also identifies the importance of culture in the process of development, especially with reference of developing countries like Pakistan.
For sociologists, culture remains a general concept that serves to draw our attention to the fact that humans develop social solutions to their individual and species problem (Kantilla 2002).Culture is a term that should indicate different things to different peoples. To some, culture is just singing, music and dancing, as (Ayoade, 1989) quoted “People trivialize the limitless scope of the term with definitions of culture as simply music, singing and dancing. To them, the goal of culture is nothing but entertainment”. To Kantilla (2002), to survive and prosper as a species, humans have developed “ways of doing things”. This notion will serve as a preliminary definition for a central concept in the study of human behaviour; culture. So, one thing is clear, culture is derived from the actions of human being. Theodorosons (1969) also provides a definition of culture; the way of life a social group; the groups total man made environment including all the material and non material products of group life that are transmitted from one generation to another. Andah (1982) presented a more embracing definition: Culture embraces all the material and nonmaterial expressions of a people as well as the processes with which the expressions are communicated. It has to do with all the social, ethical, intellectual, scientific, artistic, and technological expressions and processes of a people usually ethically and/ or nationally or supra-nationally related, and usually living in a geographically contiguous area; what they pass on to their successors and how these are passed on. Parekh (2007) provides a comprehensive definition that culture refers to a shared system of meaning in terms of which people understand themselves and the world and organize their individual and collective lives. It includes views about the nature of the self, its relations to others, man’s place in the world, the meaning and significance of human activities, relations and the human life in general, moral values and ideals, and provides a framework, an intellectual and moral compass, in terms of which human beings navigate their way through life. To summarize it, culture is the on going process which provides a guideline to the members of the society to live individually and collectively, culture evolves with the passage of time which shows the life of the societies just like China; its civilization (cultural life) is 6000 years old. Culture provides the foundation to the institutions of the society.
Development is an idea, an objective and activity. These are all interrelated. When we examine the idea of development we are exploring an area of theory (Kothari and Minogue 2002). There are certain theories of development which has been presented with the period of time; more of them are presented with the perspective of economic growth like Rostow’s Stages of Economic Growth, Harrod-Domar Growth Model, Structural Change Theory, etc. The primary focus of all of these is economic growth; these models are presented for the growth of developing countries and as the historian of economic thought Roger Backhouse puts it: development economics in its modern form did not exist before the 1940’s. The concern of development economics, as the term is now understood, is with countries or regions which are seen to be under or less developed relative to others, and which, it is commonly believed, should, if they are not to become ever poorer relative to the developed countries, be developed in some way. Theory of dependency by Andre Gondre Frank also shows the way, the developed countries...
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