Organizational Culture

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Culture is the way of life. Societal culture consists of the assumptions, beliefs and values acquired and held by the majority of people in a geographical area (Sinha 1991). The word culture derivative of Latin Word ‘Culture’ Steaming “COLERE” means to cultivate. Culture first appeared in the Oxford English dictionary around 1430 it meant “Cultivation” or “tending the soil” based on the Latin culture. In 19th century ‘Culture’ was associated with the phrase “high culture” meaning the cultivation or refinement of mind taste and manners.In 20th Century when it shifted toward its present American Heritage English dictionary: “The totality of socially transmitted behaviour patterns, arts, beliefs, institution and all other products of human work and thought. However the word ‘Culture is most commonly used in three basic senses 1) The set of shared attitudes, values goals and practices that characterizes an institution, Organization or group. 2) An integrated patterns of human knowledge, beliefs and behavious that depends up on the capacity for Symbolic thought and social learning. 3) Excellence of taste in the fine arts and humanities(KROBER A.L. & C. KLUCKHOHN 1952)

Anthropologists understand “Culture is the fabric meaning in terms of which human being interpret their experience and guide their action” and that culture is “an ordered system of meaning and of symbols in terms of which social interaction take place” (Clifford Geertz 1973). Culture refers to the underlying values, beliefs and codes of practice that makes a community what it is. The Customs of society, the self-image of its members, the things that make it different from other societies Culture manifested in music literature, life style, painting and sculpture theatre and film and similar things.

Some definitions of culture:

“Culture is sum total of integrated long behavious patterns which are characteristics of member of society” - “Hoebel”

British anthropologist “Edward Tyler” is widely credited with first (1871) “Modern” definition of culture:
“That complex whole which includes knowledge belief arts, morals, laws custom and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society”. “Edward T hall” defines culture as: Man’s medium there is not one aspects of human life that is not touched and altered by culture. This means personality, how people express themselves (including shows of emotion), the way they think how thy move and problems are solved how their cities are planned and laid out how transportation system function and organized as well as how economic and government systems are put together and function PAREEK ( 1995)

“ A cumulative preference of some states of life over others values the predispositions concerning responses towards several significant issues and phenomena (attitudes), organized ways of filling time in relation to certain affairs (rituals) and ways promoting desired behaviour and preventing undesirable ones (sanctions)”.

Most simply culture involves three basic human activities, ‘What people think’, what people do’ and ‘What People make’? Culture which is a way of life is a socially learn and enquired behaviour that committed to generation to generation. It is holistic emphasis of cultural anthropology that distinguishes it most clearly from other related disciplines. For example an anthropologist may focus his or her research on a particular dimension of culture. Such as religion or political organization, but that dimension will also be described in terms of its relationship to the ‘complex while’ of local culture. According to Sinha “Culture is totality as assumptions beliefs. Values and social systems institutions, artefacts as well as to adapt external demands”. Assumptions and beliefs may be essence of a culture, but values by virtue of their intermediate position provide focal point for analysing and undertaking human...
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