At the beginning of the twentieth century, when the revolution in transportation was only dimly foreseen, H.G. Wells, on a visit to North America, wrote that the way people and their belongings get from one place to another is in itself a trivial matter but that the process involves other matters that have an almost fundamental relation to the social order (Edwards, 1992).
The truth of this observation is everywhere apparent. Transportation is only one of many factors influencing the nature of society, but its special role derives from the fact that without it, the effective operation of other sectors of the economy is almost always precluded.
It is unarguable that transport is essential to the functioning of any society. It influences the location and range of productive and leisure activities, residence, provision of goods and services available for consumption. It inevitable influences the quality of life.
In view of the growth of demand to come, will a transport-dependent society be able to cope with the growing backlog of needs and to meet the still higher demand for quality service that seems inevitable? Although the accomplishments of transportation are notable, but there is growing concern over congestion, physical deteriorating, accidents and so on. Current trends raise momentous issues for transportation planners.
Furthermore, in Malaysia, the car ownership is growing rapidly everywhere in recent year. The same situation even occurs in the university campuses. This trend seems to be continuing in the future if the environment also remains growing in trend as before. Besides, as a developing country, the continued growth of the countries economy especially in the field of technology, engineering and other developments consequently increased the needs of experts in the respective fields. With these growths, university campuses have been expending in the aspect of population, premises, facilities and infrastructures which including the traffic and transportation networks.
However, relatively little attention has been given to parking and transportation issues in and around college campuses in Malaysia. Such issues are important as future policy makers in transportation are exposed to and influenced by these systems. University campuses actually provide an excellent laboratory for implementing various transportation management alternatives. Therefore, in this study, the main campus of Universiti Teknologi Malaysia in Skudai, Johor Bahru, is selected as a study area because it is one of the largest universities among 19 universities in Malaysia with approximately 28,000 students and 3,500 staffs attending the main campus.
1.2Need for the Study
The state of the road has been a favourite topic of conversation from earliest times. The debate continues today. The problem of inadequate public transport, of road congestion, of inadequate parking space and of the need to preserve the good quality of the environment provide the source of news for all local newspaper.
In fact the necessity for transport planning is largely self-evident. Throughout the day and night people are engaged in a variety of activities which including working, going to school, shopping and so on. Hence, to take part in these activities people frequently need to travel between their origin and destination for some distance. It is a fact to admit that all of these activities are very depending on the provision and level of services of traffic and transportation system available in the zoning areas.
As happen in most of the areas, transport problems also occur in the university campuses. For instance, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia in Skudai with the area of 1,222 hectare and students of approximately 28,000 and 3,500 staffs could be simply treated as a small urban area.
Wells (1975) highlighted that ‘the small town – and we can perhaps...