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The Harvard Style:

A Guide to Referencing Sources

The Harvard Style is Coventry University’s recommended format for documenting all the sources you use in your academic writing.

The golden rule when documenting sources is to be transparent.Ask yourself whether you could find the passage / image / publication / website address with the information you have provided

The Centre for Academic Writing provides an online booklet, of which this is an extract. For the latest version,visit www.coventry.ac.uk/caw and follow the ‘Harvard Style’ links.

The Harvard Style is a simple system used internationally by scholars and researchers. This style has two elements:

In-text citations
In the body of your paper, give the surname of the author and the date of publication. Also give the page number if you quote a passage directly or if you paraphrase (put the idea into your own words).

List of References
At the end of your paper, give full publication or internet information so that a reader can easily locate your sources

In-text Citations

You must cite every source you refer to in the main body of your writing. This is known as giving in-text citations.

Your in-text citations must state the author or website producer and the date of publication, plus the page number if you quote or paraphrase.

If you summarise what an author has argued in an entire book or article you do not need to give the page numbers.

1. If you have mentioned the author’s name in your writing, give the date and page number in brackets. For example:
Shah maintains that in recent years Coventry has become Britain’s most important industrial city (2005:66).

2. If a source has multiple authors, give all their names in the order stated in the source, up to three authors. (No page number is given in this case because the argument is made throughout the source). For example:

Cox, Patel, and Pavliotis predict that Britain will adopt the euro in the future (2004).

3. If a source has more than three authors, give the first author and then write et al, which means ‘and the others’. For example:
Fletcher et al suggest that in this century, global climate change has caused billions of pounds worth of damage (2005:88). 4. If you have not mentioned the author’s name in your writing, state the author, date, and page number in brackets. If you give more than one in-text citation to support your argument, separate the entries with a comma. For example:

Health informatics will radically change the nature of the National Health Service by the year 2010 (Cox 2002: 3, Padda 2005: 14).

5. If you cite an internet source, give the organisation which produced the site as the author and give the date the site was created or last updated. For example:
The Lanchester Library is a highly environmentally friendly building (Coventry University 2005).

Citing Secondary Sources

If you cite from a book or article which gives a useful quotation from another book or article, TRY to find the original book or article.

If you cannot find the original source, complete your in-text citation of a quote in this way:

a. Give the surname of the author whose original work you have NOT read. Then write ‘cited in’ and give the surname of the author whose work you HAVE read (in which the reference to the first author appears). Then give the date and page number. For example:

Concern about climate change is becoming a ‘force for good’ in international politics (Patel cited in Brown 2005: 6).

b. If you do not quote directly, but instead you paraphrase (put the idea into your own words) you are still required to give an in-text citation for both the original source and the source you actually read. For example:

There are positive effects of the growing concern about climate change regarding international politics (Patel cited in Brown 2005: 6).

Citing Statistics and other Data

Every time you include a date,...
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