1) Fallacy of Accident/ Fallacy of Sweeping Generalization
-occurs when one reason with the generalization as if it has no exceptions. Examples:
1) Cutting people with a knife is a crime
Surgeons cut people with knives
Therefore, surgeons are criminals.
2) Birds can fly
Penguins are birds
Therefore, penguins can fly
3) Speeding up above 50 kph is a crime.
Therefore, ambulance drivers are criminals.
2) Fallacy of Converse Accident
-occurs when you reason by paying too much attention to exception to the rule, and generalize on the exceptions. -opposite of the fallacy of accident
1) I’ve heard that turtles live longer than tarantulas, but the one turtle I bought lived only two days. I bought it at Dowden’s Pet Store. So, I think that turtles bought from pet stores do not live longer than tarantulas. 2) Beacause we allow terminally ill patients to use heroin, we should allow everyone to use heroin. 3) Since you allowed Ara, who was hit by a jeep, to hand her assignment late, you must also allow everyone to hand their assignment late.
3) Argumentum ad Hominem
-occurs when you make an irrelevant argument directed to the person by pointing out character flaws. Examples:
1) What she says about Johannes Kepler’s astronomy of the 1600′s must be just so much garbage. Do you realize she’s only fourteen years old? 2) How can she have known what happened? She can’t even do simple Math. 3) You have already been suspended. Therefore, we can’t accept your suggestions.
4) Argumentum ad Baculum
-occurs when you make an argument that appeals to the use of force like threat, intimidation or strong arm tactics. Examples:
1) My father owns the department store that gives your newspaper fifteen percent of all its advertising revenue, so I’m sure you won’t want to publish any story of my arrest for spray painting the college. 2) If you don’t take that course, I will disinherit you.
3) You had better agree that the new company policy is the best bet if you want to keep your job.
5) Argumentum ad Misericordiam
-occurs when you make an argument that appeals to pity or a related emotion such as sympathy or compassion. Examples:
1) I did not steal your money. I haven’t eaten in a long while. My children and I are really hungry. 2) Officer, please don’t give me a ticket. I was just really in a hurry because I really need to go the hospital. My friend is dying. I don’t have any minute to spare. 3) Mom. I’m sorry. I can’t wash the dishes. My hands really hurt. They were injured a while ago.
6) Argumentum ad Ignorantiam
-occurs when you make an argument from ignorance. It asserts that a proposition is true because it has not been proven false or vice versa. Examples:
1) No one has objected Johan’s policies during the seminar. I assume that they are all true. 2) Since the class has no more questions, the class is then ready for a test. 3) Nobody has ever proved to me that there are no extraterrestrial being. Therefore, there is no extraterrestrial being.
7) Argumentum ad Populum
-occurs when you claim that your argument is correct simply because it is what most everyone believes in or when you appeal to popularity or traditional institution. Examples:
1) Selena Gomez must be pregnant. Everyone believes so.
2) You must not cut your nails at night. All elders have agreed so. 3) We must watch channel K. It is the most watched channel this year.
8) Argumentum ad Vericundiam
-occurs when you make an appeal to the authority, specifically the wrong authority. This occurs when you mention an argument that is outside of the authorities’ expertise. Examples:
1) Noted psychologist, Dr. Rodriguez, suggests you buy the Samsung Galaxy Tab rather than the iPad. 2) Her fitness instructor recommended her to try watching Inception. 3) The architect recommended using less baking powder when making cakes.
9) Strawman Fallacy
-occurs when you make an argument...