1) Fallacy of Accident/ Fallacy of Sweeping Generalization
-occurs when one reason with the generalization as if it has no exceptions. Examples:
1) Cutting people with a knife is a crime
Surgeons cut people with knives
Therefore, surgeons are criminals.
2) Birds can fly
Penguins are birds
Therefore, penguins can fly
3) Speeding up above 50 kph is a crime.
Therefore, ambulance drivers are criminals.
2) Fallacy of Converse Accident
-occurs when you reason by paying too much attention to exception to the rule, and generalize on the exceptions. -opposite of the fallacy of accident
1) I’ve heard that turtles live longer than tarantulas, but the one turtle I bought lived only two days. I bought it at Dowden’s Pet Store. So, I think that turtles bought from pet stores do not live longer than tarantulas. 2) Beacause we allow terminally ill patients to use heroin, we should allow everyone to use heroin. 3) Since you allowed Ara, who was hit by a jeep, to hand her assignment late, you must also allow everyone to hand their assignment late.
3) Argumentum ad Hominem
-occurs when you make an irrelevant argument directed to the person by pointing out character flaws. Examples:
1) What she says about Johannes Kepler’s astronomy of the 1600′s must be just so much garbage. Do you realize she’s only fourteen years old? 2) How can she have known what happened? She can’t even do simple Math. 3) You have already been suspended. Therefore, we can’t accept your suggestions.
4) Argumentum ad Baculum
-occurs when you make an argument that appeals to the use of force like threat, intimidation or strong arm tactics. Examples:
1) My father owns the department store that gives your newspaper fifteen percent of all its advertising revenue, so I’m sure you won’t want to publish any story of my arrest for spray painting the college. 2) If you don’t take that course, I will disinherit you.
3) You had better...